Thursday, December 28, 2017

Samsung wins $700m Saudi chemical plant EPC contract in SAUDI ARABIA !!



Saudi Basic Industries Corp. (SABIC) is expected to award an engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract for its planned Jubail-based acrylonitrile by 2015.
The three remaining contractors are South Korea’s Daelim Industrial and Samsung Engineering, as well as Spain’s Tecnicas Reunidas.


Finally Korea's Samsung Engineering said it has secured a major contract from Jubail United Petrochemical Company (United), an affiliate of Saudi petrochemical giant Sabic for a $700-million ethylene oxide–ethylene glycol (EO/EG) plant in the kingdom.

The project, which will produce 700,000 MTPA (million tonnes per annum) MEG, will be executed in Jubail Industrial City located in the east of Saudi Arabia, 100 km north of Dammam. The construction work is due to be completed in 2020.

Samsung Engineering is the one of top EG plant builders globally, with the company delivering a total of 16 plants.

One of the world’s leading engineering, procurement, construction and project management (EPC & PM) companies, it has experience in over 40 countries.

Samsung benefits from the track record and experience of delivering 27 projects to Saudi Arabia, 22 to Sabic-related companies including United.

The company provides total project management from planning and financing to construction and commissioning and has built some of the world’s largest and most complex hydrocarbon plants.

Further, during the last 10 years Samsung Engineering built EG plants around the globe such as in countries like US, Malaysia, Thailand and India.

"We are eager to provide the finest plant for Saudi Arabia," said a spokesperson for Samsung Engineering.


“With JUPC’s trust and our proven track record in EO/EG plants and Saudi Arabia we will provide the best services possible and looking forward to work with United with many further years to come,” he added.


Source By : SAMSUNG

Wednesday, December 27, 2017

வணக்கம் முஸ்லிம் முகநூல் மீடியாவிற்கு சில விளக்கங்கள் !!


Related imageகடந்த சிலநாட்களுக்கு முன் நடைபெற்ற நோபுள்மரைன் சாகுல்கமீது அவர்களின் இல்லத்திருமண விழாவில் பல்வேறு தலைவர்கள் கலந்து கொண்டார்கள்....!
அந்த சமயத்தில், இந்திய யூனியன் முஸ்லிம் லீக் முதன்மை துணைத்தலைவர் அப்துல்ரஹ்மான் EX.MP அவர்களும்,திமுக செயல் தலைவர் ஸ்டாலின்அவர்களும்,அவர்களின் மனைவியும் சந்தித்துக்கொள்ளும் நிகழ்வு நடைபெற்றது....!!!
இந்த சந்திப்பின் போது. ஸ்டாலின் அவர்களின் மனைவி , முஸ்லிம் லீக் முதன்மை தலைவர் அப்துல் ரஹ்மான் ex.mp அவர்களுக்கு வணக்கம் சொல்கிறார்....!!!
அப்துல்ரஹ்மான் ex.mp அவர்களும் மரியாதை நிமித்தமாக பதில் வணக்கம் செலுத்துகிறார்கள்....!!!
தற்போது முகநூல் முஸ்லிம் மீடியா தனது முகநூல் பக்கத்தில் முஸ்லிம் லீக் தலைவர்கள் எல்லாம் ஏதோ இஸ்லாமிய விரோத காரியத்தை செய்ததைப்போல பதிவிட்டு, அவர்களின் முஸ்லிம் லீக் வெறுப்பை தீர்த்துக்கொள்கிறார்களோ.....??? என்று எண்ணுகிற அளவிற்கு அவர்களின் பதிவுகள் நம்மை எண்ணத்தோன்றுகிறது.....!!!?
இவர்கள் இதுபோன்ற பதிவுகளை போடுவதன் மூலம் அற்ப சமூகவலைதள விளம்பரங்களை தேடிக்கொள்ள விரும்புகிறார்களா....??? என்கிற சந்தேகமும் எழுகிறது...!!!

எது....??? எப்படியோ....???
எமது நிலைப்பாடு:::
"வீணானவற்றை அவர்கள் செவியுறும் போது அதை அலட்சியம் செய்கின்றனர்.
'எங்கள் செயல்கள் எங்களுக்கு. உங்கள் செயல்கள் உங்களுக்கு. உங்கள் மீது ஸலாம் உண்டாகட்டும். அறிவீனர்களை விரும்ப மாட்டோம்' எனவும் கூறுகின்றனர்.
திருக்குர்ஆன் 28:55
உங்களுக்கு வாழ்த்துக் கூறப்பட்டால் அதை விட அழகிய முறையிலோ,
அல்லது அதையோ திருப்பிக் கூறுங்கள்! அல்லாஹ் அனைத்துப் பொருட்களையும் கணக்கெடுப்பவனாக இருக்கிறான்.
திருக்குர்ஆன் 4:86
வேதமுடையோர் உங்கள் மீது ஸலாம் கூறினால் வஅலை(க்)கும் (உங்கள் மீதும்) எனக் கூறுங்கள் என்று நபிகள் நாயகம் (ஸல்) அவர்கள் கூறினார்கள். நூல் : புகாரி 6258
விளக்கம்:
முதல் வசனத்தில், "அவர்கள் வீணானதை செவியுறும்போது அதனை அலட்சியம் செய்வார்கள்" என்ற அடிப்படையில் இதனை நாம்(முஸ்லிம் லீக்கர்கள்) பெரிதாக எடுத்துக்கொள்ளப் போவதில்லை....!!!
இரண்டாவது வசனத்தில்,
உங்களுக்கு வாழ்த்துக்கூறப்பட்டால் , அதைவிட சிறந்ததையோ, அல்லது அதையோ திருப்பி கூறவேண்டியதின் அடிப்படையில் அவர்களின் வணக்கத்தை நாகரீகம் கருதி, பதிலாக அவர்களுக்கு திருப்பி கூறப்பட்டது.....!!!
மூன்றாவதாக உள்ள ஹதீஸில்,
வேதமுடையவர்கள் உங்களுக்கு ஸலாம் கொடுக்கப்பட்டால், அவர்களின் ஸலாம் -ஐ அப்படியே திருப்பிக்கூறலாம் என்கிற விசயம் தெளிவாகிறது....!!!
மற்றொரு, ஹதீஸில் ,யூதர்களுடைய ஸலாமை போல உங்களுடைய ஸலாமை அமைக்க வேண்டாம் என்கிற பொருள்பட வந்துள்ளது...!
ஏனெனில், அவர்கள் தன் முன்கைகளாலும், தலையை லேசாக சாய்த்தும் ஸலாம் கூறுவார்கள் என்று உள்ளதையும் கருத்தில் கொண்டால், நாம் வணக்கம் சொன்ன நிகழ்வு என்பது அவர்களின் வணக்கத்திற்கு பதில் மட்டுமே என்பதை கருத்தில் கொண்டு விமர்சனங்களுக்கு முற்றுப்புள்ளி வைத்துவிட்டு, ஆக்கப்பூர்வமான பணிகளுக்கு முன்னுரிமை கொடுக்க வேண்டிய நிலைக்கு மாறுவோம்.....!!!
நம் அனைவரின் மீதும் ,இறைவனின் "ஸலாம்" நிலவட்டுமாக....!!!
இரு கைகளையும் கூப்பி வணக்கம் கூறுவது மரியாதைக்குரியது இது தமிழர் பண்பாடு அனைத்தையும் அரிந்த நம்மை படைத்த இறைவனுக்கு தெரியாதா நாம் எதை நினைத்து வணக்கம் வைத்தோம் என்று வணக்கத்துக்குரியவன் இறைவன் ஒருவனே என்ற வசனம் நாம் தொழுது வணங்குவதைக் குறிக்கிறது. நாம் இறைவனை இரு கைகளையும் சேர்த்து வணங்கமாட்டோம். இதை அதனுடன் சேர்த்து ஒப்பிட வேண்டாம். சில நாட்களாக உங்கள் பக்கத்தில் தனிநபர் விமர்சனம் அதிகமாக இருக்கிறது தனிநபர் விமர்சனம் இருந்தால் உங்கள் பெயருடன் சேர்த்து பதிவிடுங்கள் முகநூல் முஸ்லீம் மீடியா என்ற பெயரை வைத்துக்கொண்டு நீங்கள் பதிவிடுவது அனைத்து முஸ்லீம்களின் என்னம் என்று நினைத்து பதிவிடவேண்டாம்.இது தமிழர்களின் பண்பாடு...நாகரீகமும் கூட ...தேவையில்லாமல் நீங்கள் குழப்பிக்கொள்ள வேண்டாம்...உள்ளத்தில் இறைநம்பிக்கை உறுதியாக இருக்கும் வரை ,மற்ற விஷயங்களை பற்றி தேவையில்லாமல் கவலைப்பட தேவையில்லை ...
அனைத்தையும் இறைவன் அறிவான். 


நன்றி : மு.அஜ்மல் கான்.

தொகுப்பு  : அ.தையுபா அஜ்மல்.

"959 மகள்களுக்கு தந்தை நான்!!''- சூரத் தொழிலதிபரின் பெருமிதம்...


தொழிலதிபர்கள் என்றாலே மக்களின் கண்ணோட்டம் வேறு மாதிரியாகத்தான் இருக்கும். பணம் பதுக்கும் தொழிலதிபர்கள்,
வரி ஏய்ப்பில் ஈடுபடும் தொழிலதிபர்கள் பற்றி தினமும் செய்தி படித்துக் கொண்டுதான் இருக்கிறோம். அங்கொன்றும் இங்கொன்றுமாக தொழிலதிபர்கள் பற்றிய நல்ல செய்தி அவ்வப்போது கண்களில் தென்படும். ஒரு சில தொழிலதிபர்கள் உண்மையிலேயே மக்களுக்கு தங்களால் இயன்ற உதவியை செய்து வருகின்றனர். கடந்த 2015ஆண்டு சூரத்தைச் சேர்ந்த வைர ஏற்றுமதி நிறுவனத் தலைவர் சவ்ஜிபாய் தோலாக்கியா தனது ஊழியர்களுக்கு தீபாவளி போனசாக 1,260 கார்கள் மற்றும் 400 பிளாட்டுகளை வழங்கினார். அண்மையில் அவுரங்கபாத்தைச் சேர்ந்த தொழிலதிபர் அஜே முன்னோட்டின் மகள் ஷ்ரேயா தனது திருமணத்தை முன்னிட்டு 90 ஏழைகளுக்கு இலவச வீடுகளைக் கட்டிக் கொடுத்திருந்தார். இந்த வரிசையைச் சேர்ந்த தொழிலதிபர்தான் குஜராத்தைச் சேர்ந்த சவானி குழுமத் தலைவர் மகேஷ் சவானி. சூரத்தைச் சேர்ந்த ரியல் எஸ்டேட் அதிபர் மகேஷ் சவானி, தொடர்ந்து ஆறாவது ஆண்டாக தந்தை இல்லாத ஏழை இளம் பெண்களுக்கு தந்தை ஸ்தானத்தில் இருந்து திருமணம் செய்து வைத்து வருகிறார்.


மகேஷ் சவானி இளம் பெண்களுக்கு திருமணம் நடத்தி வைப்பதற்கு ஒரு பிளாஷ்பேக் இருக்கிறது. இவரிடம் வேலை பார்த்து வந்த தொழிலாளி ஒருவர், தன் மகளின் திருமணத்துக்கு சில நாட்களுக்கு முன் இறந்து போனார். அந்த தொழிலாளியின் மகளுக்கு, தந்தை ஸ்தானத்தில் இருந்து மகேஷ் சவானி திருமணம் நடத்தி வைத்திருக்கிறார். அப்போது, அந்த பெண் அடைந்த மகிழ்ச்சிக்கு அளவே இல்லையாம். அந்தப் பெண்ணின் மகிழ்ச்சி, மகேஷ் சவானியின் மனதில் பெரும் மாறுதலைத் தந்திருக்கிறது. அதற்கு பிறகுதான் தந்தையர் இல்லாத இளம் பெண்களை இனம் கண்டு திருமணம் நடத்தி வைக்கும் பணியில் இறங்கினார் மகேஷ் சவானி.


கடந்த 2016 டிசம்பர் 26-ம் தேதி மகேஷ் சவானியின் மகன் மிதுல் சவானிக்கும் ஜான்கி என்பவருக்கும் திருமணம் நிச்சயிக்கப்பட்டிருந்தது. மகனது திருமணத்தை முன்னிட்டு 236 இளம் பெண்களுக்கும் திருமணம் நடத்தி வைக்க முடிவு செய்தனர். இதில் 5 முஸ்லிம் மணமக்களும் ஒரு கிறிஸ்துவ மணமக்களும் அடங்கும்.


பெயருக்காகவும், பெருமைக்காகவும் சில அரசியல் கட்சிகள் நடத்திவைக்கும் இலவசத் திருமணம் போல அல்ல இவர் நடத்தி வைக்கும் திருமணங்கள்! ஆம்! சவானி குழுமத்தைச் சேர்ந்த மணமக்களுக்கு எந்த மாதிரியாக திருமணம் நடைபெற்றதோ, அதே போலவே - மண அரங்கத்தில் இருந்து மற்ற எந்த விஷயங்களிலும் வேறுபாடு காட்டாமல் - சரிசமமாக அனைவருக்கும் ஒரே விதத்தில் திருமணம் நடைற்றதுதான் இந்த மாஸ் வெட்டிங்கின் ஸ்பெஷல். இஸ்லாமிய மணமக்களுக்கு இஸ்லாமிய முறைப்படியும் கிறிஸ்துவ மணமக்களுக்கு கிறிஸ்துவ முறைப்படியும் திருமணம் நடைபெற்றது. இதற்காக சூரத்தில் உள்ள மைதானத்தில் தனித் தனியாக திருமண அரங்குகள் தயார் செய்யப்பட்டு, மிகச் சிறப்பாக அலங்கரிக்கப்பட்டிருந்தன. மிதுல் - ஜான்கி மாலை மாற்றிக் கொண்ட போது மற்றவர்களும் மாலை மாற்றிக் கொண்டனர். ஒவ்வொரு மணமக்களை சேர்ந்த உறவினர்களும் நண்பர்களும் புதுமண தம்பதியரை மலர் தூவி வாழ்த்தினர்.


குஜராத்தைச் சேர்ந்த மணமக்கள் மட்டுமல்ல ராஜஸ்தான், மகராஷ்டிரா போன்ற மாநிலத்தைச் சேர்ந்த மணமக்களுக்கும் திருமணம் நடத்தி வைக்கப்பட்டது. திருமணம் நடத்தி வைப்பதோடு, மணமக்கள் குடும்பம் நடத்த தேவையான வீட்டு உபயோகப் பொருட்கள், தங்க நகைகள் என ஒவ்வொரு தம்பதியருக்கும் சுமார் ஒரு லட்ச ரூபாய் மதிப்பில் சீர்வரிசை செய்து வைக்கப்பட்டது.






இதுவரை 959 பெண்களுக்கு திருமணம் செய்து வைத்துள்ளனர். இதுமட்டுமின்றி 2008ல் இருந்து 2012 வரை 1,300 பெண்களுக்கு நிதியுதவி செய்துள்ளனர்.



251 பெண்களில் 108 பெண்களுக்கு மோவாலியா குடும்பத்தினர் கன்யாதானம் செய்து வைத்தனர். ஒவ்வொரு பெண்ணின் திருமணத்திற்கும் ரூ. 5 லட்சம் செலவு செய்துள்ளனர். ஜாதி மத பேதமின்றி இந்த திருமணங்கள் நடந்தன. திருமணமானவர்களில் ஒருவர் கிறிஸ்துவர், 5 பேர் முஸ்லிம்கள், ஒருவர் ஊனமடைந்தவர். மற்றவர்கள் 31 வகையான பல்வேறு ஜாதிகளைச் சேர்ந்தவர்கள். அவர்களது மதச் சடங்கின்படி திருமணம் செய்து ​ வைக்கப்பட்டது.

திருமணம் குறித்து சவானி குழும இயக்குநர் மகேஷ் சவானி கூறுகையில், '' இது போன்ற திருமணத்தை நடத்தி வைப்பதற்காக நான் பெருமைப்படுகிறேன். இதே அரங்கத்தில்தான் எனது மகன் மிதுல் எனது மருமகன் ஜே ஆகியோருக்கும் திருமணம் நடைபெற்றது. திருமணம் முடித்து வைப்பதோடு எனது பணி முடிந்து விட்டதாகக் கருதவில்லை. அவர்களது எதிர்கால வாழ்க்கைக்காக என்னால் என்ன உதவியெல்லாம் செய்ய முடியுமோ அதையெல்லாம் செய்தும் கொடுக்கிறேன். கடந்த ஐந்து வருடங்களாக இதனை செய்து வருகிறேன். இதுவரை தந்தைகள் இல்லாத 959 இளம் பெண்களுக்கு தந்தை ஸ்தானத்தில் இருந்து திருமணம் செய்து வைத்துக்கொள்கிறேன். அந்த வகையில் 959 மகள்களுக்கு நான் தகப்பன் என்று கூறிக் கொள்வதில் பெருமை கொள்கிறேன் '' என்கிறார்.

ஆக்கம் மற்றும் தொகுப்பு : அ. தையுபா  அஜ்மல்.


Tuesday, December 26, 2017

Australia in line to take over 2022 World Cup from Qatar !!!


The stadium will have a 40,000 capacity but will reduce to 20,000 after the tournament

Australia is back in line as a strong contender to host the 2022 World Cup after Qatar's diplomatic crisis has left it in jeopardy and likely to pull out of holding the event.

A new report has delved into the suitability for Qatar to host the World Cup, amid the ongoing political tension in the Middle East.

The build-up to World Cup 2022 has been dogged with problems since it was controversially awarded to Qatar ahead of Australia in 2010.

Should Qatar be forced to pull out of hosting the World Cup, Australia could be placed back in the running.

Australia lost out to the Gulf State in the 2022 bid, sparking outrage.

The decision raised concerns over alleged corruption, with former FIFA president Sepp Blatter stepping down in 2015.

A study by management consultants Cornerstone Global evaluated the impact of the current diplomatic situation involving Qatar and its surrounding countries.

Obtained by the BBC, the report claims Qatar 'is under greater pressure regarding its hosting of the tournament'.

'The current political crisis has seen - or at least raised the possibility of - a Qatari opposition movement emerging,' the report said.

'Given the current political situation... it is certainly possible that the tournament will not be held in Qatar.'

The report warned companies of the 'high-risk' infrastructure programme, which is set to total $257billion (£153bn) in costs.

There have also been reports of migrant workers on construction sites being subjected to appalling conditions.

The tournament has subsequently had to be moved to winter because of the temperatures in the summer.

The Qatar in focus: Is the Fifa World Cup 2022 in danger? report advises clients to 'to give them unique insights to the reality of doing business in complex and challenging environments'.

It also adds: 'Western diplomats have privately stated they do not know whether or not the tournament will take place as planned.


'Any cancellation of Qatar hosting the World Cup 2022 will likely be abrupt and will leave contractors involved in a precarious situation that may not be easily resolved.'

The Supreme Committee for Delivery & Legacy dismissed the report as 'transparent as it is laughable.'



What's the report saying?


That among local diplomats in the Middle East, there is not full confidence that Qatar will be able to deliver the World Cup. The report is prepared for infrastructure firms assessing the risks involved in working on preparations for the World Cup.

Why is there a risk the World Cup will be moved?

Diplomats believe the current crisis which has resulted in a blockade of the sovereign state could lead to the development of an opposition movement in the country, with no guarantees of continuity if the governance of the country changes.

How did the crisis develop?

Qatar is a gas-rich nation, sharing a huge oil field with Iran. However, its economic might has long caused fractious relations with some of its Gulf neighbours and things reached crisis point this summer. Five nations – Saudi Arabia, Egypt, the UAE, Bahrain and Yemen accused Qatar of supporting terrorism in June and broke off diplomatic ties. Turkey remains supportive of Qatar, flying out food to beat the blockade, however Qatar's cash supplies are falling and it has also been hit by falling oil prices.



What problems has this caused?

Saudi Arabia, Qatar's only immediate neighbour, has closed its land border to the nation, leading to major logistical problems, involving food and movement of citizens. The Saudis, Egypt and UAE have also closed their airspace to Qatari transportation. Infrastructure firms have been forced to source materials needed to build stadiums and other World Cup-related projects from countries outside of the blockade areas. Previously such materials came through the main port in Dubai, now closed to Qatar and its own shipping facilities are limited until a new port opens soon.

Will the World Cup really be transferred?

A number of controversial issues surround the World Cup, from the corruption alleged to have been involved in Qatar securing it, to the treatment of workers and its movement from summer to winter. However, it seems the biggest threat yet is the diplomatic crisis, both in terms of regional instability or a change in leadership of the tiny nation which could put hosting it under threat. The competition's future in the country depends on how the crisis plays out
As the host nation faces diplomatic crisis in the Middle East
Qatar was controversially chosen to stage the 2022 World Cup by FIFA in 2010
The nation is now involved in a diplomatic crisis, placing Australia back in line
The World Cup infrastructure is due to total $257 billion once completed
Qatar was chosen to host the 2022 World Cup instead of Australia




Host of the 2022 FIFA World Cup !!

“The 2022 FIFA World Cup, which is being held for the first time in the Middle East, is being hosted by Qatar and this will benefit both Qatar and Middle Eastern countries. The matter of Qatar hosting the 2022 FIFA World Cup is not up for negotiation,” Al-Thani said.

Al-Thani’s comments came after Dubai security Lt. Gen. Dhahi Khalfan wrote on his Twitter account last week that the Gulf crisis could end if Doha forfeited hosting the World Cup.



Monday, December 25, 2017

கிறிஸ்துமஸ் தாத்தா தோன்றிய சுவாரசிய வரலாறு.!

கிறிஸ்துமஸ் தாத்தா தோன்றிய சுவாரசிய வரலாறு.!கிறிஸ்துமஸ் என்றவுடன் முதலில் நினைவுக்கு வருவது கிறிஸ்துமஸ் தாத்தா எனப்படும் சாண்டா கிளாஸ் தான். அடர்ந்து வளர்ந்த வெள்ளை தாடி, வெள்ளை பார்டர் வைத்த சிகப்பு நிற வெல்வெட் அங்கி அணிந்த சிரித்த முகம், இவற்றோடு முதுமையைப் பிரதிபலிக்கும் வசீகரமான வரும் கிறிஸ்துமஸ் தாத்தாவை பற்றிய சுவாரசியமான தகவல்களை பார்க்கலாம்.!

ரோம் சாம்ராஜ்யத்தின் பதாரியா பகுதியில் லைசியா துறைமுகத்தில் பிறந்தவர் நிகோலாஸ். இளம் வயதில் பாலஸ்தீனத்துக்கும் எகிப்துக்கும் பயணம் மேற்கொண்டார். மீண்டும் லைசியா திரும்பிய நிகோலாஸ், கிறிஸ்தவ பிஷப் பதவியை ஏற்றார்.
ரோம் நகர பேரரசன் டயோக்ளீஸ் காலத்தில் கிறிஸ்தவர்கள் வேட்டையாடப்பட்டபோது, பிஷப் நிக்கோலாஸும் சிறையில் தள்ளப்பட்டார். ஆனால், கால மாற்றத்தால் பேரரசர் கான்ஸ்டான்டின் காலத்தில் விடுதலை செய்யப்பட்டார். அவர் இறந்த பின்னர் அவரது சடலம் மைரா என்ற இடத்தில் அடக்கம் செய்யப்பட்டது.

மக்களிடம் அவர் காட்டிய கருணை, அன்பின் காரணமாகவும் அவரது தயாள குணம் காரணமாகவும் அவரது கல்லறைக்கு மக்கள் கூட்டம் கூட்டமாக வரத் தொடங்கினர். ஆறாம் நூற்றாண்டுக்குள் மக்களிடம் அவரது கல்லறை மிகவும் பிரபலமாகிவிட்டது.

மைரா பகுதிக்கு வந்த இத்தாலிய மாலுமிகள், நிகோலாஸின் கல்லறையிலிருந்து அவரது நினைவுப் பொருட்களை இத்தாலியின் பாரி நகருக்கு எடுத்து சென்றுவிட்டனர். அதனால், ஜரோப்பா முழுவதிலும் அவரது புகழ் பரவியது.

டச்சு யாத்திரிகள் மூலமாக அமெரிக்காவின் நியூயார்க் நகருக்கும் அவரது புகழ் பரவியது. செயின்ட் நிகோலாஸ் என்பது டச்சு மொழியில் சின்டர்க்ளாஸ் என்று மருவியது. பின்னர் ஆங்கிலம் பேசும் மக்கள் அவரை சான்டா கிளாஸ் என அன்புடன் அழைத்தனர்.

1822ல் கிளமென்ட் மூர் என்பவர் கிறிஸ்துமஸுக்கு முந்தைய இரவு என்ற தலைப்பில் கட்டுரை ஒன்றை எழுதினார். அதில் கிறிஸ்துமஸ் தாத்தாவைப் பற்றி வர்ணித்திருந்தார். அது பத்திரிகைகளில் வெளியாக மிகவும் பிரபலமடைந்தது. மூர் எழுதிய ஜிங்கிள் பெல் ஜிங்கிள் பெல் என ஆரம்பிக்கும் தன் கவிதையில் நிக்கொலஸ் -ஐ கதாநாயகனாக வடிவமைத்தமையே நிக்கொலஸின் புகழ் அமெரிக்கா எங்கும் பரவ மூல காரணமாயிற்று.

சாண்டா கிளாஸின் உருவம் ஒரு வேலையாளை மாதிரியாகக் கொண்டு வரையப்பட்டதாம். அந்த் வேலையாளின் அழகிய சிவந்த கன்னங்கள், பழுப்பு நிறத் தாடி, சிறிய வாய், பெருத்த தொப்பை, சிவப்பு நிற அழகிய மேலாடை, பனிக்கால தொப்பி, தோளிலே ஒரு மூட்டை - இவையெல்லாம் ஒன்று திரண்ட உருவம் தான் நாம் பார்த்து மகிழும் சாண்டா கிளாஸ்.

புனிதர் நிகோலாஸ் காலத்தில் பிஷப்புகள் அணிந்திருந்த சிவப்பு - வெள்ளை அங்கியே கிறிஸ்துமஸ் தாத்தாவின் உடையாகிவிட்டது. அப்போது முதல் உலகம் முழுவதும் அன்பின் திருவுருவமாக கிறிஸ்துமஸ் தாத்தா உலா வருகிறார்.

தொகுப்பு  :  அ .தையுபா அஜ்மல்.

Wednesday, December 20, 2017

Certified Automation Professionals Certification (Part-1)

Dear Future Certified Automation  Professionals,
I would like to share the CAP Exam notes receive from one of my friend Mr.Nottam Uwaise (Pallapatti ,Tamilnadu) working as Instrument Commissioning Engineer for Luberef Expansion Project. He followed and prepared for the notes during his Examination. We hope this  notes will  be useful notes for your Examination !! 
Please go to the web link as below..


2) CAP exam content, preparation for test, final result
The CAP exam is offered either as a paper-based or computer-based format. The paper-based test is offered only on special occasions (e.g., after CAP review courses offered by ISA or after ISA Automation Week). Electronic testing is offered through test centers worldwide. The CAP exam consists of 175 multiple choice questions covering seven different domains as described in the CAP Body of Knowledge to be answered in four hours. Pacing yourself is the key to clearing the exam. If you are unable to solve a question, you can mark it and revert back to it later. Plan your time so as to answer at least 50 questions an hour and keep the last half hour to ponder any questions you had marked.
Here is a personal analysis on the exam content, which will help you better prepare your study plan.
Nature of questions
a. 85-90% of the questions were from “A Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge”
b. 5-10% were related to NEC, NFPA, and ISA standards
c. 5% were randomly selected
Difficulty level (1 being least and 10 being most)
a. 30% were in between 1-4
b. 50% were in between 5-8
c. 10% were in between 9-10
Additional notes
a. What are standard documents in a project life cycle (URS, FDS, DDS, and UTPs)? What information does each one of these cover?
b. Practice questions to calculate project life-cycle cost and comparison of difference projects with different life-cycle costs.
ISA does not share any information about scores and marking criteria. At the end of the exam, you will be notified if you have passed or need to retake it.
CAP reference material
There are numerous CAP resources available at ISA’s website (www.isa.org/link/cap_study). Some of the reference material includes:
·        Certified Automation Professional Study Guide, Second Edition: The Study Guide contains a list of the CAP domains and tasks, 75 review questions, and answers complete with justifications. References that were used for each study guide question are also provided.

·        A Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge, Second Edition: Edited by Vernon L. Trevathan, father of the CAP program, with contributions from more than 35 leading experts. This book defines the most important automation concepts and processes, while also describing the technical skills professionals may require for implementation in today’s industrial environment.

·        CAP Learning System: This tool includes a seven module printed textbook and 500 online sample questions. Online sample questions and answers explained with reasoning, help to carve your study plan and reinforce your knowledge base with a practice test.

·        CAP Exam Review Course (EC00): This is a three-day instructor-led course offered at different locations throughout the U.S. It provides a thorough review to areas included in the CAP Body of Knowledge like field devices, control and simulation, alarm management best practices, safety instrumented systems, maintenance management, workflow structures, and project management. After this review course, ISA offers the CAP test in paper and pencil format without any fee.

·        CAP Online Exam Review Course (EC00E): ISA’s CyberU online instructor-assisted training course utilizes pre-recorded training modules, additional text materials, online evaluations, and e-mail discussions. Students will have access via e-mail to an instructor. This course runs for nine weeks. The course includes a copy of the CAP Learning System.

Sample questions
Sample questions are a must before attempting the actual exam. The sample questions will help you refine your study plan and focus on areas that need to be studied in detail. When your preparation is complete, you can revisit them to ensure your readiness for the exam. References for sample questions:
·        CAP Learning System comes with 500 online sample questions with reasoning for correct answers.
·        InTech publishes one CAP sample question in every issue. They are available online at www.isa.org/link/certification_main.

Getting a CAP Champion
CAP Champions are your personal guides to finding your way to success. These individuals have successfully passed their CAP and will assist you in refining your study plan, selecting study material that best fits your needs and share their own personal experiences. ISA maintains a list of active CAPs, and you can easily locate someone in your area at www.isa.org/link/CAP_people.
CAP products and renewal
Within 30 days of taking and passing your exam, you will receive a packet from ISA containing:
·        CAP certificate signed by the ISA president
·        CAP badge you can stick to your shirt
·        CAP pocket ID
·        CAP sticker for your safety helmet
If for some reason you are unable to pass your test, you can sit for a retest after 30 days with a fee of $170. You can take it twice within a nine-month eligibility period.
CAP certifications are valid for three years. Within four months of your certification expiration, you need to submit an application for renewal. You will be required to earn 135 Professional Development Hours (PDH). One year of relevant experience worth 30 PDHs, so three years of experience will gain you 90 PDHs. Remaining 45 PDHs can be earned using professional trainings, ISA web seminars, and courses.
Being CAP helped me grow more visible among my peers and enhanced my reach to new job opportunities. My professional networking has increased, and I am getting more invitations and views over LinkedIn profile. But the best part throughout the journey was rediscovering my passion in automation. Most of my previous experiences and exposures were limited to process automation, but now I have discovered others domains of automation like batch processing, MES, and SIS design. Looking ahead is fun now!

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Image may contain: 1 person, sitting and indoor

Mr. Nottam Uwasie is an ISA Certified Automation Professional working at Free Lancer  Automation & Instrument  application engineer.


 Thanks to Mr. Nottam Uwaise.

Tuesday, December 19, 2017

METHOD STATEMENT FOR INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION AND INSPECTION OF MEASURING & TESTING !!

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.    PURPOSE

3

2.    SCOPE

3

3.    REFERENCES

3

4.    DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS

3 - 4

5.    GENERAL

4

5.1.        PERSONNEL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

4 - 5

5.2.        QUALIFICATIONS AND TRAININGS

5

5.3.        CALIBRATION STANDARDS AND REFERENCE MATERIALS

5 - 6

5.4.        CALIBRATION WORKSHOP AND TEST FACILITY

6

5.5.        PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF CALIBRATION WORKSHOP

6

5.6.        ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

7

5.7.        CALIBRATION CERTIFICATES/REPORTS

7

5.8.        CONTROL OF NON-CONFORMING CALIBRATION WORK

7

5.9.        REFERENCE STANDARD, TEST EQUIPMENTS AND TOOLS

7 - 8

5.10.      RECEIPT, HANDLING AND STORAGE

8

6.    SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

8 - 9

7.    CALIBRATION CONSIDERATIONS

9

8.    CALIBRATION PROCEDURE

9

8.1.        TRANSMITTER CALIBRATION

9 - 10

8.2.        TEMPERATURE CALIBRATION

10 - 12

8.3.        PRESSURE CALIBRATION

13 - 15

8.4.        LEVEL CALIBRATION

15 - 17

8.5.        FLOWMETER CALIBRATION

17

8.6.        CONTROL VALVE CALIBRATION

17 - 18

9.    QUALITY ASSURANCE AND TESTING

18

10.  ATTACHMENTS

18

1.    PURPOSE

The purpose of this method statement is to provide guideline for calibration and inspection of measuring & testing shall be carried-out in a neat, efficient and skillful manner, assuring satisfactory results. The work shall be in accordance with the requirements of the project specifications, standards, and shall fulfill their true intent and meaning.


2.    SCOPE

This method statement covers the methodology for calibration and inspection of measuring & testing in Luberef Yanbu Expansion project.
These guidelines and information describes the calibration and inspection of measuring & testing techniques and different requirements to be adhered during the course of execution for calibration and inspection of measuring & testing, to get a satisfactory result and in accordance with established safety practices. It does not intend to cover all details and variations in calibration and inspection of measuring & testing nor provide for every possible, available contingency representation.


3.    REFERENCES

a)    Project Scope of Works
b)    Project Technical Specification
c)    Applicable Saudi ARAMCO standards.
d)    Issued for Construction drawings


4.    DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATION
a)    Calibration                   The set of operations that establish, under specified
                                    conditions, the relationship between values of quantities
                                    indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system
                                    and the corresponding values realized by standards.
b)    Accuracy                    The difference between a measurement reading and the
                                    true value of that measurement.
c)    Error                            Offset or deviation (either positive or negative) from the
                                    correct value.
d)    UUT                            Unit Under Test – An instrument or equipment that shall be
                                    calibrated and tested to determine performance and
                                    proficiency of the unit i.e. instrument, equipment,
                                    transmitter, gauges, control valve etc.
e)    Reference Standard   A device or material used to calibrate UUT and provide
                                    traceability of measurements to international standards.
f)     TUR                            Test Uncertainty Ratio – The ratio of the uncertainty of the
                                    test item (DUT) to that of the measurement reference
                                    standard used in the calibration. Commonly acceptable
                                    TUR in International Standards is at least 1:4 ratio.
g)    Hysteresis                   The delay between the action and reaction of a measuring
                                    instrument. Hysteresis is the amount of error that results
                                    when this action occurs.
h)    Linearity                      The amount of error change throughout an instrument's
                                    measurement range. Linearity is also the amount of
                                    deviation from an instrument's ideal straight-line
                                    performance.
i)      Traceability                  The property of the result of a measurement or the value of
                                    a standard whereby it can be related to stated references,
                                    usually national or international standards, through an
                                    unbroken chain of comparisons, all having stated
                                    uncertainties.
a)    5-point calibration        In 5-point calibration , three basic steps are involved,
                                    namely: 1) zero adjustment (LRV), 2) linearity adjustment
                                    (25%, 50%, & 75%), and 3) span adjustment (URV)
b)    SAES                          Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard
c)    SATIP                         Saudi Aramco Technical Inspection Procedure
d)    SAIC                           Saudi Aramco Inspection Checklist
e)    NEC                            National Electrical Code
f)     IEC                              International Electro-Technical Commission
g)    RFI                              Request for Inspection
h)    MRR                           Material Receiving Report
i)      ITP                              Inspection and Test Plan
j)      COMPANY                 Luberef or its designated Representative
k)    CONTRACTOR         Samsung Engineering Const. Ltd.
l)      SUBCONTRACTOR  Any Individual or Corporation under contract to the
                                    CONTRACTOR who perform the entire and/or some
portion of the work or services on a project which the CONTRACTOR has agreed upon.


5.    GENERAL

5.1.        PERSONNEL, DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
a)    Instrumentation Manager
i)      Manager will be coordinating with concerned personnel, plan the daily work schedule and enforce strict adherence to all project requirements.

b)    Instrument Supervisor
ii)     Supervisor is responsible and ensuring that the works are carried out accordance to the COMPANY requirements, scope of work, and approved Method Statement.
iii)    Monitor the progress of work in relation with the work program and to report to the Manager.
iv)   Coordinate with Safety Officer and to ensure that the works are carried out in safe practicing methods.

c)    Calibration Technician
i)      He shall be approved to perform calibration by the COMPANY.
ii)     He shall demonstrate a technical competence, education, skills, training, and practical experience. Records are to be available in demonstrating his qualifications.
iii)    He is responsible to conduct calibration and testing of equipment as per approved procedure and reference standard.
iv)   He shall complete required calibration and testing in accordance with documented requirement, record and report on the findings.

d)    Quality Control Manager
i)      Responsible for the implementation of all required quality control activities such as test and inspection for this particular job and keeps record of its necessary documentation.

e)    Quality Control Inspector
i)      Inspect the work to comply according to Company standards.
ii)     He shall be responsible for conducting surveillance and inspection duties during test activities and ensuring quality compliance.
iii)    He shall review all relevant documents and test reports.

f)     Safety Supervisor
i)      Make sure that all safety measures are complied before starting the work.
ii)     Provide safety instructions to the workers.
iii)    Ensure the implementation of all the safety measures in accordance with the HSE plan and everybody aware of it, for its proper implementation.
iv)   Ensure all the implemented safety measures are adequate to maintain the safe working on the site.
v)    Inspect all the site activities and train the persons to prevent accidents and its proper reporting to the project manager and the client.

5.2.        QUALIFICATIONS AND TRAININGS
a)    Supervisors & Inspectors must be eligible and competent for the job.
b)    Technician must able to understand his work and require trade certificates if necessary.
c)    Conduct trainings regularly to maintained safety and good workmanship.

5.3.        CALIBRATION STANDARDS AND REFERENCE MATERIALS
a)    The reference standards used in calibration workshop are to be calibrated by a calibration service provider that the traceability of the calibration(s) is traceable to national/international metrology institution.
b)    Equipment (Reference standards) - Calibration workshop must have all the calibration standards and reference materials available for the calibrations to be performed.
c)    Calibration of Reference Standards - The calibration standards supporting calibration systems are to be calibrated on a regular schedule to maintain precision and traceability as per manufacturer’s recommendation. Records are to be available to verify the drift of reference standards and demonstrate compliance with this requirement.
d)    The calibration certificate for reference standards and related records must provide evidence that the calibration service provider utilized calibration standards that are traceable to national/international standards.
e)    The calibration standards shall be maintained in accordance with the following:
1.    A unique identification number such as tag number, the manufacturer’s name, an assigned identification number or model and serial number.
2.    The manufacturer’s instructions or operating manual.
3.    Calibration records - including adjustments made, certificates, next calibration date and calibration dates.
4.    Calibration records and procedures shall clearly specify when the calibration of the instrument expires.
f.     Measurement Traceability - All calibration equipment is to be calibrated using Measurement Standards traceable to a national metrological institute e.g. NIST or a government-sponsored / approved national metrology institute, either directly, or through a regional group. Calibration equipment is deemed traceable through an accredited calibration service provider.
g.    Reference materials i.e. metric to english conversion table, RTD conversion table, thermocouple conversion table etc. must be available at all time and easy to locate in calibration workshop.

5.4.        CALIBRATION WORKSHOP AND TEST FACILITY
A location where the work shall be carry out, a temporary portable laboratory facility prepared specifically for the purpose of completing calibration and testing at project premises or site location.

5.5.        PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF CALIBRATION WORKSHOP
a)    Calibration workshop must maintain appropriate environmental conditions as specified by documented calibration procedures or methods being applied to assure the correct performance of calibrations. This requirement includes control and monitoring of parameters that may affect the quality of calibrations including humidity, temperature, vibration, etc.
b)    Other relevant conditions that may be a source of error such as dust, electromagnetic disturbances, radiation, electrical supply, sound and vibration levels are to be controlled and monitored as appropriate to the technical activities concerned. Calibrations are to be halted when the environmental conditions may jeopardize the results of the calibrations. Corrective action is to be taken before proceeding with calibrations.
c)    There shall be effective separation between neighboring areas in which there are incompatible activities. e.g. Construction works, Vibration from heavy equipment that may affect a calibration process. Distance or appropriate barriers must separate these calibration activities.


5.6.        ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
25 °C ±3 °C, 40% to 50% RH

5.7.        CALIBRATION CERTIFICATES/REPORTS
Calibration certificates and/or reports provided by calibration workshop shall contain the following information:
a)    Company logo of Luberef, Samsung and SUBCONTRACTOR.
b)    Location where the calibrations were carried-out.
c)    Unique identification of the calibration certificate.  Each page of supporting data requires an identification to ensure that the page is recognized as a part of the calibration certificate package.
d)    An unambiguous identification of the item(s) tested or calibrated e.i. Tag Number, Nameplate Data (Manufacturer, Model Number, Serial Number etc).
e)    Reference to the sampling plan and procedures used by the workshop or other bodies if these are relevant to the validity or application of the results;
f)     Reference Standards data e.i. Tag Number, Nameplate data, Calibration due date etc
g)    Calibration Range and Calibration Tolerance
h)    The calibration results (as-found and as-left data) with the units of measurement, where appropriate,
i)      Calibration date and Due date
j)      The name(s), functions(s) and signature(s) or equivalent identification of person(s) authorizing the calibration certificate;
k)    The conditions (e.i. environmental temperature and humidity) under which the calibrations were made that have an influence on the measurement results;
l)      Evidence that the measurements are traceable (to national standards)
m)  Comments

5.8.        CONTROL OF NON-CONFORMING CALIBRATION WORK
a)    Records to be maintain of every event where non-conforming calibration work is found.
b)    Where non-conforming conditions occur, Calibration personnel is to determine if there are defects in the processes used or data developed.
c)    If the cause of the non-conforming work is found to affect calibration or testing data. CONTRACTOR shall be informed for immediate resolution if the “as-found” data was not within the acceptable tolerance.

5.9.        REFERENCE STANDARD, TEST EQUIPMENTS AND TOOLS
a)    Pressure source of pressure such as a hand pump or regulated pressure source (Compressor-oil free type), Nitrogen Gas
b)    Precision gauge or digital test standard
c)    Comparator
d)    Manometer or dead weight tester
e)    Temperature dry-well calibrator
f)     Thermometer Simulator
g)    Decade Resistance Box
h)    Temperature reference standard
i)      6.5 Digital Multimeter
j)      Handheld Multimeter (Digital and Analog type)
k)    HART Communicator
l)      Milli-Ampere Simulator
m)  Automatic Voltage Regulator
n)    DC Power Supply
o)    Calculator
p)    Hand Tools
a)    Other appropriate standard equipment required to be used during calibration
q)    Appropriate safety equipment

5.10.      RECEIPT, HANDLING AND STORAGE
a)    After receiving the UUT. It shall be calibrated and inspected to ensure that it functions correctly, establish the reliability of the UUT and is in fit condition to be installed in projects site. All calibrated instrument must be signed off by concerned parties.
b)    All UUT for calibration & testing shall be checked on receipt for damage and deficiency, any item found to be defective or incomplete at this stage, or during subsequent calibration, or testing shall be reported to the CONTRACTOR and their disposition agreed before any further action.
c)    All UUT calibration certified or tested condition must be handled with care and protected from any impact, vibration or any magnetic disturbance, dust free environment, away from direct sunlight and sudden change in temperature that could adversely affect the accuracy of the instrument.


6.    SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
a)    Conformity and execution in accordance with field Safety Management Plan.
b)    Safety management during work (Worker Personnel Protective Equipment and temporary safety structure establishment / operation).
c)    Regarding to safety all relevant JHA (Job Hazard Analysis) will be submitted separately.
d)    Toolbox talk shall be conducted daily prior to work start Permit to Work (PTW) must be obtained and available at the work location.
e)    Safety Supervisor / Officer to ensure working area shall be safe and in good condition.
f)     Safety Supervisor / Officer shall carry out the safety site inspections to ensure that safety requirements laid in the safe work plan are being followed during and after the work.
g)    CONTRACTOR/SUBCONTRACTOR shall provide safety equipments as necessary according to an evaluation of expected needs during the work. This applies to temporary fire extinguishers first aid equipments, stretcher, etc.
h)    Authorized personnel shall inspect all equipments and electrical tools prior to commence any Work and shall be inspected & tag by safety personnel to ensure their safe worthiness at work. The inspection reports shall be kept for record.
i)      Hazardous substance likely to be used during the work e.g. Paint, Lubricant, etc. shall be used per established safety work practice and in accordance with the information from a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).
j)      Calibration personnel shall ensure that before leaving their working places, it must be clean, tidy and free from rubbish.


7.    CALIBRATION CONSIDERATIONS

a)    Correct reference standard equipment used during calibration and shall meet the required criteria of TUR per available national/international standards.
b)    Before any UUT is calibrated, the UUT must stabilize (warm-up) according to manufacturer’s instructions.
c)    Bench test for calibration is performed at the workshop.
d)    Since precise test for the instrument or equipment has been performed at the manufacturing shop, the bench test inspects more on the zero point calibration and span rather than precise calibration.
e)    Check the air (with clean air without oil) and power utilities for use before testing.
f)     Transmitter (UUT) shall be checked both the milli-ampere value and specified process variable.
g)    Tolerance shall be checked as per Datasheet of the instrument, gauges, control valve etc.
h)    For UUT that has completed testing shall be clean by blowing with clean air without oil, and seal the joints and equipment inlets to prevent moisture and dust from entering.
i)      Install the testing instrument on rigid points free from vibrations.
j)      If necessary, UUT power source shall be provided if separate power source is required. Make sure that the method of wiring connection is correct before proceeding the calibration to avoid before instrument or equipment damages.
k)    Calibration label shall be affixed in every UUT to identify a successful calibration, it specified the tag number, date of calibration, and initial/sign of calibration technician.
l)      All calibrated UUT shall be sealed with tamper-resistant seals to preclude any tampering with calibration controls or adjustments.


8.    CALIBRATION PROCEDURE

8.1.        TRANSMITTER CALIBRATION
8.1.1.    HART FUNCTION
1.    The standard test equipment used is a Communicator (HART).
2.    Hook-up the transmitter (UUT) to reference standard (communicator).
3.    Simulate milli-ampere signal that corresponds to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (5-point test) of the UUT measurement range and record the “as-found” value. Check the UUT ranges both the upscale and downscale directions.
Note: For UUT with square root capability make sure to simulate a correct required current value.
4.    Record the “as-found” value of reference standard and UUT.
5.    Evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to determine if adjustment is required.
6.    If adjustment is required, perform zero and span adjustment per the manufacturer’s procedures.
7.    Or use the general instructions of Zero and Span point adjustment, as follows:
a.    Using the Zero-and-Span adjustment screw
b.    Pressing the Zero and Span push button adjustment
c.    Others require the use of handheld interface or communicator to convey specific information to the UUT.
8.    Because some zero and span adjustment interact, it is important to recheck the zero and span until no further adjustment is required.
9.    Once no further adjustment is required, repeat the 5-point test, verify that it is within tolerance over the defining specification and record “as-left” values.

8.1.2.    FIELDBUS FUNCTION
1.    Normally, workshop calibration for Fieldbus function is not essential but data record is required.
2.    Ensure that the UUT and its accessories are in good conditions and no physical damage on the body.
3.    Record data such Tag number, Maker, model number, etc on the calibration data sheet.
4.    The UUT shall be tested as part of loop test.
5.    Lest that the calibration of Fieldbus function is recommended by COMPANY. Make sure that the change of device parameters during calibration shall be put the control loop in Manual/Out of Service before applying any changes. Verify the output and device parameters are correct during the normalization state of the transmitter. Failure to do so may result on device damage.
6.    Calibration of Fieldbus devices is similar with calibration of HART function.
7.    Follow the calibration procedure of HART function.

8.2.        TEMPERATURE CALIBRATION
a)    CALIBRATION OF A DIAL THERMOMETER
1.    The standard test equipment use is a temperature dry-well calibrator, and temperature reference standard.
2.    Set the temperature of dry-well calibrator and wait that the temperature value to stabilize.
3.    The dial thermometer (UUT) sensor and reference standard thermometer shall be immersed in the temperature dry-well calibrator. Consider to correctly depth the immersion length of each thermometer.
4.    Simulate temperature signal that corresponds to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (5-point test) of the UUT measurement range and record the “as-found” value. Check the UUT ranges both the upscale and downscale directions.
5.    Record the temperature “as-found” value of Reference Standard and UUT.
6.    Evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to determine if adjustment is required.
7.    Some thermometer (UUT) are not adjustable, in which case the UUT status shall be informed to CONTRACTOR for immediate resolution if the “as-found” data was not within the acceptable tolerance.
8.    In case the UUT can be adjusted, adjust the UUT based on the average error such that all readings are as close as possible.
9.    Once no further adjustment is required, repeat the 5-point test, verify that it is within tolerance over the defining specification and record “as-left” values.

b)    CALIBRATION OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR (RTD AND TC TYPE)
1.    The standard test equipment use is temperature dry-well calibrator, and temperature indicator reference standard.
2.    Set the temperature of dry-well calibrator and wait that the temperature value to stabilize.
3.    Hook-up the temperature sensor (UUT) in temperature indicator reference standard. Make sure that the temperature type is matching with type settings of reference standard.
4.    Immersed the UUT in the temperature dry-well calibrator. Consider to correctly depth the immersion length of sensor.
5.    Simulate temperature signal that corresponds to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (5-point test) of the UUT measurement range and record the “as-found” value. Check the UUT ranges in upscale directions (linearity check).
6.    Evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to verify that it is within tolerance over the defining specification of the UUT
7.    Temperature sensors (UUT) are not adjustable, in which case the UUT status shall be informed to CONTRACTOR for immediate resolution if the “as-found” data was not within the acceptable tolerance.
8.    This will complete the calibration of temperature sensor.

c)    CALIBRATION OF RTD TYPE TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
1.    The standard test equipment use is a decade box or Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) simulator.
2.    Commonly used RTD type temperature sensor in industrial-grade RTD is PT100, which is a 100 ohm at 0°C, platinum, with coefficient values of 0.00385 ohm/ohm/°C alpha.
3.    Hook-up the RTD type temperature transmitter (UUT) to reference standard test equipment (Decade box or RTD simulator).
Note: When using Decade Resistance Box as standard it will introduce error to wiring connection. Make sure that the test lead used of 3-wire system is the same size and length. For 2-wire system, make sure to eliminate error associated to the test lead resistance.
4.    Simulate temperature/resistance signal that corresponds to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (5-point test) of the UUT measurement range and record the “as-found” value. Check the UUT ranges both the upscale and downscale directions.
5.    In case, a decade box has been-used as standard equipment. Record the resistance and temperature “as-found” values and check the correct corresponding temperature values per Temperature conversion table of RTD -PT100 type temperature.
6.    Evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to determine if adjustment is required.
7.    If adjustment is required, perform zero and span adjustment per the manufacturer’s procedures.
8.    Or use the general instructions of Zero and Span point adjustment, as follows:
a.    Using the Zero-and-Span adjustment screw
b.    Pressing the Zero and Span push button adjustment
c.    Others require the use of handheld interface or communicator to convey specific information to the UUT.
9.    Because some zero and span adjustment interact, it is important to recheck the zero and span until no further adjustment is required.
10.  Once no further adjustment is required, repeat the 5-point test, verify that it is within tolerance over the defining specification and record “as-left” values.

d)    CALIBRATION OF THERMOCOUPLE (TC) TYPE TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
1.    The standard test equipment use is a thermocouple simulator of correct type.
2.    Connect the TC type temperature transmitter (UUT) to reference standard test equipment. Make sure that the UUT typesetting is matching with reference standard thermocouple simulator.
3.    Simulate temperature signal that corresponds to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (5-point test) of the UUT measurement range and record the “as-found” value. Check the UUT range in both the upscale and downscale directions.
4.    Repeat procedure for remaining temperature type of the UUT.
5.    Once the “as-found” data has been recorded evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to determine if adjustment is required.
6.    If adjustment is required, perform zero and span adjustment per the manufacturer’s procedures.
7.    Or use the general instructions of Zero and Span point adjustment, as follows:
a.    Using the Zero-and-Span adjustment screw
b.    Pressing the Zero and Span push button adjustment
c.    Others require the use of handheld interface or communicator to convey specific information to the UUT.
8.    Because some zero and span adjustment interact, it is important to recheck the zero and span until no further adjustment is required.
9.    Once no further adjustment is required, repeat the 5-point test, verify that it is within tolerance over the defining specification and record “as-left” values.



8.3.        PRESSURE CALIBRATION
a)    CALIBRATION OF PRESSURE GAUGES
1.    Pressure gauges (UUT) shall be calibrated using a source of pressure such as a hand pump or regulated pressure source, precision gauge or digital test standard with the correct module, Comparator, manometer or dead weight tester
2.    Use a Tee to connect the input reference standard to the pressure source and the UUT. Mounting of UUT during calibration to be followed as per site installation. In case, you are unsure for mounting direction, vertical position is the prepared method.
3.    Simulate a 50% pressure and locked-in signal pressure-check system for leaks, then reset to zero.
4.    For any mechanical instrument, it is important to determine whether hysteresis error is present in the UUT. This means you will begin your upscale check from 0% and approach the first test point, 10% from below. Approach each increasing test point from below and do not overshoot.
5.    Similarly, start the downscale check by increasing the input to 100%, then approach 90% from above.
6.    Once the “as-found” data has been recorded evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to determine if adjustment is required.
7.    If the result is outside the allowable tolerance, determine the type of error present (linearity, zero, span, and hysteresis), and adjust per the manufacturer’s instructions or use the general instructions, as applicable, that follow.
a.    For motion balance instruments, linearity adjustment shall be done first. The movement of the elastic element in a pressure gauge causes a proportional movement in the linkage.
b.    On a properly calibrated gauge, the linkage angle will be exactly 90 degree when the input to the gauge is 50% of total range. Therefore, apply 50% input and       use a template to check the 90 degree angle.
c.    With linearity adjusted, position the pointer so the gauge reads mid-scale. You may need to remove the pointer and reposition it on the shaft. If removing the pointer is necessary, be sure to use the proper tool. Adjust the pressure input to 10% and adjust the zero so the gauge reading equals the applied input.
d.    Now correct the span error. Increase the input pressure to 90% and adjust the gauge to read the input value. For span adjustment, loosen the crews and rotate the entire adjustment mechanism.
e.    Repeat the zero and span adjustment until the reading of 10% and 90% are accurate. Zero and span interact in the mechanical device, so rechecking them is necessary. When zero and span require no further adjustments, recheck the linearity to make sure it is still properly adjusted.
f.     There is no adjustment for hysteresis.
8.    After adjusting linearity, zero and span, perform another full scale check, verify that it is within tolerance over the defining specification and record “as-left” values.

b)    CALIBRATION OF PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
1.    Connect the pressure transmitter (UUT) to applicable standards.
2.    Simulate pressure signal that corresponds to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (5-point test) of the UUT measurement range and record the “as-found” value. Check the UUT ranges both the upscale and downscale directions.
3.    Evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to determine if adjustment is required.
4.    If adjustment is required, perform zero and span adjustment per the manufacturer’s procedures.
5.    Or use the general instructions of Zero and Span point adjustment, as follows:
a.    Using the Zero-and-Span adjustment screw
b.    Pressing the Zero and Span push button adjustment
c.    Others require the use of handheld interface or communicator to convey specific information to the UUT.
6.    Because some zero and span adjustment interact, it is important to recheck the zero and span until no further adjustment is required.
7.    Once no further adjustment is required, repeat the 5-point test, verify that it is within tolerance over the defining specification and record “as-left” values.

c)    PRESSURE SWITCHES CALIBRATION
1.    A pressure switch (UUT) is a device that senses pressure and changes state at the programmed or adjusted set-point.
2.    Connect variable pressure source to reference test gauge and Hi-side pressure switch (UUT) port.
3.    Connect a Multimeter set to continuity range across Common “C” and Normally Open “NO” switching element contacts. The meter should read an open circuit.
4.    Increase the pressure to the set-point of the pressure switch (UUT) until the contacts change over. The meter should read “short circuit”. Record the “as-found” pressure value for a rising pressure.
5.    Increase the pressure to the switch maximum rating. Slowly reduce the pressure to the UUT until the switch changes over from closed to normally open position. Record the “as-found” pressure value for a falling pressure.
6.    From the two readings been taken, the pressure difference between the rising and falling pressure settings. This is called “dead-band” of the switch.
7.    Evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to determine if adjustment is required.
8.    If adjustment is required, follow the manufacturer’s procedures for adjustment of set-point.
9.    Once no further adjustment is required, repeat the procedure, verify that it is within tolerance over the defining specification and record “as-left” values.

d)    PRESSURE METERS
(Displacement type Pressure meter)
1.    Workshop calibration is not essential but data record is required.
2.    Ensure that the UUT and its accessories are in good conditions and no physical damage on the body.
3.    Record data such Tag number, Maker, model number, etc on the calibration data sheet.
4.    The UUT shall be tested as part of loop test.

8.4.        LEVEL CALIBRATION

8.4.1.    SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS WITH LEVEL CALIBRATION
a)    SUPPRESSED/ELEVATED ZERO
1.    If the D/P cell is not located at an elevation that corresponds to 0% level in the tank, it must be calibrated to account for the difference in elevation. This calibration adjustment is called zero elevation when the cell is located above the lower tap; it is called zero suppression when the cell is located below lower tap.
2.    To calculate the amount of elevation or suppression, the distance between the zero reference level and the high pressure port of the D/P cell must be accurately measured.

b)    SPECIFIC GRAVITY
1.    During calibration of DP level devices, it is important to consider the specific gravity of the process material to avoid error during the calibration.
2.    To calibrate a D/P transmitter for a sensor monitoring. The nominal test point for input pressure must be multiplied with equivalent process fluid specific gravity

c)    DRY AND WET LEGS
1.    For differential pressure measurements, the pressure of the vapor in pressurized vessels is connected to the low pressure side of the D/P cell. When process vapor are non-condensing, non-corrosive, non-plugging, the leg external to the vessel that is connected to the D/P cell is a dry leg. If any condensate accumulates in the leg, significant error would result in the level indication. This would reduce the D/P sensed and result in a level indication or output that is lower than the actual level. If the process vapors condense, the reference leg can be filled to form a wet leg. The specific gravity and height of the reference column must be accurately determined and accounted for in any calibration of the D/P cell.


8.4.2.    LEVEL CALIBRATION

a)    CALIBRATION OF DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (D/P) LEVEL TRANSMITTER
1.    Connect the D/P Transmitter (UUT) to applicable standards.
2.    Calibration of UUT is similar to calibrating a pressure transmitter.
3.    Measured pressure is applied to the high pressure port of the D/P cell, and low pressure side is vented to atmosphere.
4.    Be sure to remove any caps, and the low pressure side is vented to atmosphere. Be sure to remove any caps, cleanliness plugs, or obstructions from the low pressure port.
5.    Simulate pressure signal that corresponds to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (5-point test) of the UUT measurement range and record the “as-found” value. Check the UUT ranges both the upscale and downscale directions.
6.    Evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to determine if adjustment is required.
7.    If adjustment is required, perform zero and span adjustment per the manufacturer’s procedures.
8.    Or use the general instructions of Zero and Span point adjustment, as follows:
a.    Using the Zero-and-Span adjustment screw
b.    Pressing the Zero and Span push button adjustment
c.    Others require the use of handheld interface or communicator to convey specific information to the UUT.
9.    Because some zero and span adjustment interact, it is important to recheck the zero and span until no further adjustment is required.
10.  Once no further adjustments are required, repeat the 5-point test and verify that it is within specification over the defined operating range. Record “as-left” values in calibration data sheet.

b)    CALIBRATION OF DISPLACEMENT TYPE LEVEL GAUGE
1.    Establish an independent method for determining the actual level in the tank
2.    Fill the level gauge chamber (UUT) with clean water using plastic tubes at the bottom of the drain, similar to the gauge glass.
3.    Simulate level that corresponds to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (5-point test) of the UUT measurement range and record the readings “as-found” at each test point.
4.    Evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to determine if adjustment is required.
5.    Some level gauge are not adjustable, in which case the gauge status shall be informed to CONTRACTOR for immediate resolution if the “as-found” data was not within the acceptable tolerance.
6.    In case the UUT can be adjusted, adjust the UUT as per manufacturer’s recommendation.
7.    Once no further adjustments are required, repeat the 5-point test and record “as-left” values.
c)    LIQUID LEVEL METERS
(Displacement, Ultrasonic, Capacitance and Diaphragm type Level meter)
5.    Workshop calibration is not essential but data record is required.
6.    Ensure that the UUT and its accessories are in good conditions and no physical damage on the body.
7.    Record data such Tag number, Maker, model number, etc on the calibration data sheet.
8.    The UUT shall be tested as part of loop test.

8.5.        FLOWMETER CALIBRATION

a)    DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE FLOWMETERS
1.    Calibration of D/P Flowmeter is similar with a D/P pressure transmitter.
2.    Follow the calibration procedure of D/P pressure transmitter.

b)    FLOWMETER
(Turbine and Static Capacity, Ultrasonic, Magnetic, Vortex Shedding, Rotameter, Coriolis and Diaphragm type Flow meter)
1.    Workshop calibration is not essential but data record is required.
2.    Ensure that the UUT and its accessories are in good conditions and no physical damage on the body.
3.    Record data such Tag number, Maker, model number, etc on the calibration data sheet.
4.    The UUT shall be tested as part of loop test.

8.6.        CONTROL VALVE (FINAL CONTROL DEVICE) CALIBRATION
1.    The control valve (UUT) is set with chain Block or Pulley, to the identical condition or actual installation.
2.    Control valves (UUT) operated by diaphragm or piston are operated with air (oil free) or using a nitrogen by using pressure regulator, test gauge, and direct current supply device, milli-ampere simulator.
3.    Inspect accessory material operations such as hand wheel, amplifier, relay, and lockup valve.
4.    Set-up the UUT and makes sure that it is secure.
5.    Simulate signal that corresponds to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (5-point test) of the UUT measurement range and record the “as-found” value. Check the UUT range in both the upscale and downscale directions.
6.    Test the following performance of control valve (UUT) as follows:
a.    Valve action
b.    Air and power supply fail action
c.    Stroke Test
d.    Stroking time
e.    Limit Switch function
f.     Other function test that is required for specific control valve.
7.    Evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to determine if adjustment is required.
8.    If necessary, adjust the UUT in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruction.
9.    Once no further adjustments are required, repeat the 5-point test and record “as-left” values.


9.    QUALITY ASSURANCE AND TESTING
a)    A Quality Assurance System shall be operated conforming to related Standards, Specifications and Procedures.
b)    Controls and checks shall be established and documented Manufacturer’s recommendation for products and materials that used needs special attention.
c)    Quality Control, Inspection and Testing are covered under the Quality Control Procedure.
d)    Inspections and tests shall be carried out in accordance with the approved ITP and procedures and in accordance with the project specification.
e)    Request for Inspection (RFI) and material testing to be raised as per procedures.
f)     The inspection result shall be documented on the related reports/checklist.


10.  ATTACHMENTS

a)    Job Safety Analysis (JSA)