Wednesday, March 30, 2016

Details of all the amusement parks in Kerala !!

Amusement Parks are one of the most preferred tourist attraction on a vacation as it is exciting for people of all age groups. Kerala has seven amusement parks to offer to its visitors. All the parks have been modernised with world class facilities and special discounts. Read more to know the details of all the amusement parks in Kerala

Amusement parks are a favourite destination for a vacation among people of all age groups. It is the children who enjoy this trip the most but with some exciting rides and facilities being provided at the amusement parks in Kerala, it is a fun place for adults and elderly people too. The rides in amusement parks are divided into two categories -one being called the dry rides and the other one is known as water rides. The rides which are widely enjoyed by one and all are the water rides. The state of Kerala in India also provides a number of good amusement parks for its visitors. All the parks are modernized using latest technologies and provide all other facilities such as eateries, toilets, changing rooms, prayer halls, conference halls, locker facilities, telephone booths, first aids, area for vehicle parking etc. The amusement parks which offer water rides, wave pools and small swimming pools are referred to as Water Theme parks. Nowadays the water parks are also very careful in the maintenance of the water at the parks. Frequent checks are made to supervise the purity of the water so that it is not harmful for the visitors especially the young ones. All the amusement parks charge an entry fee before entering the parks for which the rates may vary according to the season and age group of the people. People who come in large groups especially students brought from the school or college can get good discounts. The latest technology of booking the tickets online in advance is also available.

1. Silver Storm amusement park - Silver Storm water theme park is an innovative theme park. It has created rides of unique designs which are the first-of-its-kind in entire South India. The park offers over 40 rides and all the facilities that are needed to make your trip comfortable and enjoyable. Cottages are dormitories are also provided in the park premises. Children also have many attractions in this park such as fish ponds, Viking Ship, carnival games and the children's village.

Read more about Silver Storm Water Theme Amusement Park ,Thrissur

https://silverstorm.in/


2. Dream world water park - Dream World Water Park is located in Chalakudy of Thrissur district in Kerala. It is a modern sophisticated water park with world class facilities and filtration methods to purify the water. The first Rain Dance attraction was introduced by Dream World park. The park has modern features and unique designs to give the ultimate comfort to its visitors.

Read more about Dream World Water Park ,Athirappilly

http://dreamworldwaterpark.com/

3.Fantasy Amusement Park - Fantasy Amusement Park is the first amusement park in the state of Kerala and is known for its state of the art online testing and monitoring of water quality to keep it 100% pure always. One of the unique features of Fantasy Amusement Park is its digital Planetarium which is a mesmerising section displaying images of the stars, sun, moon and other celestial objects.

Read more about Fantasy Amusement Park Palakkad

http://www.fantasypark.in/

4. Happy Land Amusement Park - Happy Land is south India's first water theme park and is located in Vembayam of Thiruvananthapuram district. Lying amidst lush greenery and natural surroundings, the park is an eco-friendly theme park offering thrilling rides and world class facilities to its visitors. The park consists of the longest uphill water ride in Kerala and the largest wave pool in Kerala.

Read more about Happy Land Amusement Park Thiruvananthapuram

http://happylandtvm.com/

5. Sadhoo Merry kingdom - Sadhoo Merry Kingdom Amusement park is the most modern man made sophisticated water theme park in Kerala and is located on Chala hills of Kannur district. The park has modernised techniques of filtering the water to make sure it is always 100% pure.

Read more about Sadhoo Merry Kingdom Amusement Park Kannur

http://www.sadhoomerrykingdom.com/

6. Veegaland - Veegaland Amusement Park is a very popular amusement park of Kerala located in Pallikara in Ernakulam district of Kerala. The park has won many awards for its perfect safety measures and environment friendly ways. Veegaland has numerous rides to offer both dry as well as water rides.

Read more about Veegaland Amusement Park Ernakulam

http://www.wonderla.com/kochi-amusement-park/

7. Vismaya water theme park - Vismaya water theme park is one of the best amusement parks in India and is located near Taliparamba in Kannur district of Kerala. Vismaya is managed by Malabar Tourism Development Co-operative Limited (MTDC). The park has water and adventurous rides as well as some informative activities for the young ones. The highlight of Vismaya park is the rain water harvesting project undertaken by the park. This feature makes it completely different from all the other theme parks in India. It is one of the environmental friendly water theme parks in the world.

Read more about Vismaya Water Theme Park Kannur

http://www.vismayakerala.com/

Friday, March 18, 2016

நகைக்கடை அடைப்பு ஏன் ? ஓர் அலசல்

யாரும் நகைகடை அடைப்புக்கு ஆதரவு தரவேண்டாம் ஆதங்கமும் படவேண்டாம் விஷேசம் வைச்சிருக்கோமேன்னு பதறவேண்டாம்.விஷேசம் வைத்திருப்பவர்கள் தயவு செய்து பொருத்து கொள்ளுங்கள் நாட்டின் வளர்ச்சிக்காகஇதில் என்ன நாட்டு வளர்ச்சி இருக்கு இது எப்பிடி நாட்டை வளர்க்கும் என்று எண்ணினால் மேலும் படியுங்கள் விவரம் புரியும் 2லட்சதுக்கு மேல் வாங்கினால் பான் கார்டு அவசியம் அது போக இந்த அரசு போட்ட கலால் வரி அவர்களை கலங்கடித்து உள்ளது அது எப்பிடி எல்லாதிலும் தான் வரி இருக்கு என்று நினைக்கலாம் இதுல அவங்களுக்கு என்ன கலக்கம் என்று நினைக்கலாம் நம்மகிட்ட தானே வாங்கி கொடுக்க போறான் என்று நினைக்கிலாம்.

நம்மகிட்ட வாங்கி அரசுக்கு வரி கட்டுவதற்க்கு எவனாச்சும் போறாடுவானா யோச்சிபாருங்கள் விலை கிராம் 3000 வித்தப்பையும் மக்கள் நகை வாங்க தானே செய்தார்கள் இந்த 1% விதத்தால் மக்கள் நகை வாங்குவதை விட்டா விடுவார்கள்
கண்டிப்பாக கிடையாது உண்மையான நோக்கம் வேற மக்களுக்காகவா இவர்கள் இவ்வளோ ஆதங்கம் அடைகிறார்கள் போராட்டம் ஆர்ப்பாட்டம் நடத்துகிறார்கள் கிடையவே கிடையாதுஅப்பறம் எங்கே இருக்கு ஆப்பு எங்கே இவங்களுக்கு வலிக்குது
அதான் கலால் வரி அது என்ன பண்ணும் என்று நினைக்கிறேர்கள்.

இதற்க்கு முன் தங்கம் இறக்குமதிக்கு தான் வரி அப்பிடி என்றால் ஓரு கடை காரான் எவ்வாறு இறக்குமதி செய்கிறானோ அதற்க்கு மட்டும் வரி அந்த நகை கடை காரன் எவ்வளோ விற்பனை செய்கிறான் என்று மத்திய அரசுக்கு தெரியாது அது மாநில அரசுக்கு தான் விற்பனை வரி (vat) அவன் எவ்வளோ விற்கிறான் என்று.அந்த விற்பனைக்கு மட்டும் வரி கட்டிருவான் ஆனால் எவ்வாளோ இறக்குமதி செஞ்சான் என்று மாநில அரசுக்கு தெரியாது இங்கே தான் இப்போது ஆப்பு
ஓரு நகை கடை காரன் 10 கிலோ நகை வாங்கினால் விற்பனையும் 10 கிலோவாக தானே இருக்கனும் ஆனால் அந்த கடையின் விற்பனை 12 கிலோவாகவோ 15 கிலோவாக இருந்தால் கலால் வரி மூலம் மத்திய அரசுக்கு தெரிந்து விடும் எப்பிடி இறக்குமதி செய்தது 10 கிலோ விற்பனை செய்வது எப்பிடி 15 கிலோவாக வரும் என்று ஆராய்ந்தால் இவனுகளோட புட்டு வெளி வந்திரும்கிற பதற்றம் தான் இவனுங்களுக்கு
என்னது அது முதலாவதாக தேரத்தின் பின்னனி அடிப்படும் நீங்கள் நகைவாங்கும் போது பில்லில் அவன் உங்கள் நகைக்கு உட்டான சேதாரத்தை தனியாக காட்டமாட்டான் உங்கள் நகையின் கிராம்மோடு கூட்டி தான் பில்போடுவான்.

எ.டு :10கிராம் சேதாரம் 10% அதாவது 1 கிராம் இதையும் சேர்த்து 10+1=11கிராம் விற்பனை செய்தாக பில் போட்டு அதுக்கு vat போட்டு வாங்கிருவான் மாநில அரசின் தேவையோ என்னா விற்பனை ஆகுதோ அதற்க்கு தான் வரி அவன்களுக்கு அதுநாலே இப்ப வரைக்கும் பிரச்சனை இல்லை ஆனா கலால் வரி யால் என்னாகும் 11கிராம் விற்பனை என்று பில் அதற்க்கு 1% விதம் கலால் வரி கட்டினாலும் அவன் நமக்கு கொடுத்தது 10 கிராம் மீதி 1 கிராம் அவன்யிடம் தான் இருக்கு இப்பிடியே சேதாரத்தின் தங்கம் அவனிடம் சேர சேர அவன் வாங்கியதிற்க்கு விற்றதிற்க்கும் கடையில் இருக்கும் இருப்புக்கும் சேர்த்தா அவன் வாங்கியதை விட அதிகமாக இருக்கும் அப்போ அரசு அந்த கடையின் மீது எந்த விதமான நடவடிக்கையும் எடுக்க அரசுக்கு உரிமை உண்டு
அடுத்து தங்க கடத்தல் இது தான் இப்ப இவைங்களுக்கு பேர்யிடி
கருப்புபணம் உருவாக்குவதே இவைங்க தான் அதுக்கு உடைந்தயாக போவதும் இவைங்க தான் அதான் இப்ப இவைங்களுக்கு புலியை கரைக்கிறது.
தங்கத்தை யாரும் கரைத்து குடித்து விட முடியாது அப்ப கடத்தி வர தங்கம் பிடிபட்டது போக பிடிபாடமல் வருது யார் கைக்கு வரும் இந்த மொடமுழூங்கி நகை கடைகாரர்யிடம் தான் வரும் இவன் அதற்க்கு 10% இறக்குமதி வரி இல்லாமல் இந்த நகையை கொள்ளை லாபத்திற்க்கு விற்பான் இப்போ மேற்கூறிய அதே பிரச்சனை தான் இந்த கலால் வரியால் ஓரு நகை கடை காரன் வாங்கியது எவ்வளோ விற்றது எவ்வளோன்னு இப்ப மத்திய அரசின் நேரடி கண் பார்வைக்கு வந்துவிடும் போது இவனால் கடத்தல் தங்கத்தையும் விற்க முடியாது சேதாரத்தில் மிஞ்சிய தங்கத்தையும் விற்க முடியாதுசேதார தங்கத்தை கூட அவன் வாடிக்கையாளர்களுக்கு தரும் நிலை வந்துவிடும் இப்போது நகை கடை காரண்களுக்கு சேதார நகையை விட கடத்தல் தங்கம் வாங்கினால் பிரச்சினை என்பதே அவனுக்கு மிகப்பெரிய அடி
இப்ப தெரியுதா ஏன் இவ்வளோ பெரிய போராட்டம் என்று.

Thursday, March 17, 2016

Safety (H.S.E) Interview Questionnaire & Answers..

Safety is the control of hazards to obtain any acceptable level of risk, to perform a job properly and avoid incident and accidents at worksite!!!

SAFETY STANDARDS:
HELMET Z-89.1 (ANSI) 1981
SAFETY GLASS Z-87+ (ANSI) 1968
SAFETY HARNESS Z-359.1 (ANSI) 10.4 SAFETY SHOES Z-47.1 (ANSI) 1967
RESPIRATOR Z-88.2 (ANSI) 1992
SAFETY ON SCAFFOLDING A-10.4 (ANSI)

1. WHAT IS METHOD OF STATEMENT?
It is the documents submitted by contractor to client, covering the general work procedure of a particular job in safe manners as per required standard.
2. WHAT IS THE USE OF WMS?
We can plan and execute the work easily and safely, it also helps to know the codes and standards used for each activity.
3. WHAT IS JSA AND ITS USE?
Job safety analysis is the step by step analysis of a job to determine the safe working procedures
It includes the following steps.
a.) Watch the job being done
b.) Break the job down into steps
c.) Described the hazards in each step of task
d.) Identity the desired controls measures and
e.) Implement these counter measures in the job executions.
4. WHAT IS WORK PERMIT?
It is a written document authorizing a person or a group to perform maintenance, inspections or construction work.
5. HOW MANY TYPE OF PERMITS ARE USED?
Hot work permit,
Cold work permit
Confined space entry permit,
Excavation permit,
Lifting permit,
Night work permit,
Radiography permit,
Other permits as per job requirement.
6. What is Safety?
Safety is a state where the Risk has been Eliminated or Reduced to an Acceptable Level. Control of Accidental Loss of Resources Human and Material.
7. What is near-miss?
An undesirable event which has the potential to cause loss

8. WHAT IS CONFINED SPACE?
Any space having a limited means of access and egress, when subject to the hazards like deficiency of Oxygen, toxic or flammable gases or substances, dust etc.
9. WHAT IS THE OXYGEN LEVEL IN A CONFINED SPACE?
The Oxygen level in Confined space is 19.5% to 23.5%.
10. IN WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES A CONFINED SPACE WORK PERMIT CAN BE ISSUED?
If properly ventilated, gas test reading are satisfactory, properly barricaded and warning signs are Posted, trained stand by man is present with log sheet, sufficient lightening and low voltage Electricity (24V-110V), proper means of communication, locked and tagged out if necessary, lifeline man retrieval System if necessary etc.
11. WHO IS CONFINED SPACE ATTENDANT?
He is one who is aware of the confined space hazards and knows how to react if any thing goes wrong, able to maintain confined space entry log sheet etc.
12. WHAT ARE THE HAZARDS IN A CONFINED SPACE?
Oxygen Deficiency or Enrichment, presence of toxic or flammable gases, chemical hazards fire hazards
Fall of materials fall hazards electrocution dust sounds heat or cold caught in between moving
Equipments engulfment etc.
13. WHAT ARE THE DUTIES OF A CONFINED SPACE ATTENDANT?
He is responsible for the safety of entrants, should be present whenever people are working in confined space, maintain update entry log sheet, maintain continuous communication with entrants and monitor conditions in the confined space to ensure a safe working atmosphere, prevent unauthorized personnel, initiate alarm for help if in need evacuate the entrants if conditions are not satisfying or in case of any general evacuation initiated contact rescue personnel if necessary etc.
14. GIVE SOME EXAMPLE OF A CONFINED SPACE?
Pipes, Vessels, Tanks, boilers, and Tube areas Silos Trenches and excavation deeper then 4feet sludge Pits Duct works etc.
15). NAME ONE HAZARDOUS JOB IN A CONFINED SPACE?
Welding Grinding Chemical Use of gas cutting sets erection of materials
16). WHO IS COMPETENT PERSONS?
Is one who is properly trained and authorized to perform a specific work in a safe manner competent person one who is capable of identifying existing predictable hazards and who has authority to make prompt corrective actions.
17). WHAT IS ACCIDENT?
Accident is uncontrolled events that results in undesirable consequences to personnel injury, illness of the assets damage or loss or to the environment.
An Undesirable event which causes harm to personal Damage to property.
18). WHAT IS A NEARMISS?
A Potential hazards, which has not yet caused an accident or an occurrence that did not results in but have the potentials to results in undesirable consequences to personnel illness injury and or to the assets damage loss or to the neighboring community and environment.
An Undesirable event which has the potential to cause loss.
19). WHO MAKES AN ACCIDENT REPORT?
Concerned area supervisor or site safety representatives.
20). WHO MAKES AN ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORT?
A team of frontline supervisor, HSE manager sub contractor representatives if subcontractor personnel
Are injured high officials depending upon the severity of accident.
21). WHAT IS THE USED OF ACCIDENT REPORT?
To find out the root cause of accident makes recommendations to prevent re-occurrence and evaluate the effectiveness of emergency response.
22). WHAT IS WASTE MANAGEMENT?
Waste management means safely disposing the by-product of a process or a work to the environment after the proper treatment if necessary so that no threat for living properties and environment exists.
23). WHAT IS MSDS?
Materials safety data sheets is the documents prepared by the manufacturer giving product name producer address emergency contact phone number information of ingredients possible hazards first aid measures precaution to be taken for storage and handling recommended PPE extinguisher physical and chemical properties etc.
24). WHAT IS ISOTOPE?
Isotope means one or more species of atoms having same atomic number but different mass number.
25). WHY IS ISOTOPE IS HAXARDOUS?
Isotope are hazardous because it emits uncontrolled energy in the form of radio active waves which is hazardous to all living things as it can destroy the living tissues that causes fatality or can convert it to cancer.
26). WHAT IS RADIOGRAPHI?
It is use for welding X-rays.
(If the wind velocity is up the 32 km or 20 miles then work should stop.)
27). WHAT IS RADIOACTIVITY?
Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nucleus emits ALPHA particles BETA particles or GAMA rays or electromagnetic rays during this process.
28). WHAT IS THE UNIT FOR MEASURING THE RADIATIONS?
Micro sever or Mille Rem.
29). IN WHAT CONDITIONS A WORK PERMITS CAN BE ISSUED FOR RADIOGRAPHY?
The controlled area is calculated evacuated and barricaded with yellow black tapes warning signs a minimum of 4 no. and red or yellow flash lights.
30). WHAT ARE SAFETY MEASURES TO BE TAKEN WHILE DOING RADOIGRAPHY?
Ensure a competent person is surveying outside the barricaded areas with surveys meters. The crews are observing and following the safety precautions. The controlled areas is calculated evacuated and barricaded with yellow black warning signs a minimum of 4no.s and red or yellow flash lights.
31). WHAT IS THE CONTROLLED AREA?
Any area where the radiations dose is more that 0.75 MREM/h (7.5 Micro sever)
32). WHAT IS A GIEGER METER?
Is the instruments used to measure the radiations dose (Radiation Survey Meter)
33). WHAT IS THE USED OF FILM NADGE?
This badge is worn by the personnel who are exposed to radiation due their nature of duty and this is processed to calculate the received radiation dose of a person during the period normally 1 month of exposure.
34). WHAT IS DECAY CHART
Is the chart showing the change in the radioactivity of an Isotope by losing mass by decay in certain period at regular interval of time.
35) WHO IS AN AUTHORIZED EXPOSE PERSON?
He is one who got formal training in the use of sealed source and X-RAY equipment used in industry radiography.
36) WHAT ARE THE REQUIRMENTS OF A MAN BASKET?
It should be designed and fabricated according to standards have party certificates two guide ropes damage free lifting gears the load bearing capacity should be written on man basket shackles with cotter pin only to be used.
37) HOW SLINGS ARE INSPECTED?
All slings must be inspected before every use and periodically it should be inspected thoroughly and shall be rejected if found were one third of the original outside the diameter of outside individual wires serves corrosion distortion linking crushing bird caging broken wires.
38) THE TYPES OF CRANES?
v Mobile Crane
v Crawler Crane
v Tower Crane
v Over Head Crane
39) THE PARTS OFCRANE?
Boom,Slings,Shackie,Flyingjib,Antitwoblock,Outerrigger,Mainhoist,Auxillaryhoist,Pulley,Webslings,LMI(Load Movement Indicator).
40) WHAT ARE THE REQUIRMENTS OF A CRANE LIFTING?
Crane positions on firm and level ground with wood pads and steel plates. Outriggers are fully extended tires are off the ground. Certified operator and rigger are available safe load indicator is working the check list filled by competent persons.
41) WHAT IS WORK RADIUS?
Is the maximum distance where a certain activities for lifting or rigging jobs in progress.
42) WHAT IS SWL?
Safe Working Load is the maximum load that can apply to the lifting tool, safely
43) WHAT IS LIFTING PLAN?
Is the documents prepare for planning a critical lift by calculating and considering all factors which is going to effect the lift and there by selecting the correct tools and cranes and ensure the safe lifting procedure to be followed for the particular lift, which is used for lifting and what the safe factor is, where the load is lifted, where it is fitted, size and SWL of each lifting tool used JSA and load-chart are attached with it.
44) WHAT IS TANDUM LIFT?
A lift in wich two crane are used for Lifting is called Tandum Lifting.
45) What is excavation?
A man made cut, cavity, trench or depression formed by earth removal.
46) What is trench?
A narrow excavation, where the depth is greater than width
47) What is shoring?
A structure that supports the sides of an excavation and protects against cave-ins.
48) What is different between a flash back arrestor and a check valve?
A check valve allows flow in one direction only. This prevents oxygen reaching acetylene cylinder and acetylene reaching oxygen cylinder in the event of blockage in the torch or line or pressure variations.
But a flash back arrestor prevents reverse flow; stop the flow of flame from reaching the cylinder in the event of a flash back or the temperature exceeds a limit (220 degrees f.)
49) How many type of Fall Protection system?
(1) Guardrail system,
(2) Safety Net system.
(3)Personal Fall arrest system (BODY HARNESS)
50) What is the classis of fire and what type of fire extinguishers are used for them?
Class A. Ordinary combustible materials
Example: Wood, Cloth, Plastic, Rubber
Extinguisher- Water, DCP, Foam, CO2, Halon
Class B. Combustible liquids and gases.
Example: Gasoline, Diesel, Oil, Grease, Oil based paint, tar…
Extinguisher- CO2, Foam, DCP
Class C. Energized electrical equipment
Extinguisher - DCP, FM 200, Halon, Carbon dioxide.
Class D: Combustible metals
Example: Magnesium, Potassium, Zinc, Calcium, Titanium
Extinguisher- Metal x-type, Combustatible metal type
51) What is the responsibility of Fire Watch?
Fire watch is the person design to identify and eliminate fire hazards, alert and extinguish fire incase of any out break of fire and to protect the person and properties from a fire. He is the man to reach first in case of fire by keeping a close watch on such hazardous areas.
52) What is color coding system?
This system followed to inspect and insure the serviceability of tools, equipments periodically ( normally it is monthly ) like fire extinguishers, full body harness, lifting gears, electrical codes and power tools, etc. These things are inspected by competent person and are indicated by putting the color of particular month (this color is decided in advance and is being followed by all people at particular site). The items which are found defective or unserviceable will not be color coded and has to be removed from service.
53) Who can color code?
Competent person
54) What is the maximum distance between two adjacent accesses in a long excavation?
A ladder must be present within 25feet, of employees working in excavation.
In open excavation – At least every 30m on the perimeter, if less than 1.2m deep
- At every 7.5m on the perimeter, if more than 1.2m deep
55) When is an excavation considered as a confined space?
If depth is more than 1.2m
56) Who can erect scaffolding?
Certified scaffold
57) Who can inspect the components used for erecting a scaffold?
A competent and certified scaffolding supervisor
58) What is tag system?
A tag system is put on scaffolding, by a competent person, indicating the present condition whether it can be used and whether fall protection needed or not.
Red tag – Do not use (is being erected or dismantled)
Yellow tag – Can use with 100% fall protection (is incomplete or cannot be completed)
Green tag – Safe to use (scaffolding is complete)
59) Who can place a scaffold tag?
Competent person (scaffolding supervisor)
60) What are the details in a scaffold tag?
Location, Maximum loading capacity (kN/m2 or psf), Date erected and date inspected with foreman’s name and signature.
61) In which condition a scaffold cannot be erected?
Extreme weather (strong wind, rain, ice), ground not stable, safe clearance (minimum 10 feet) can’t be maintained with live wire, certified workers and supervisor are not available, permit not available.
62) What is the minimum overlapping of two adjacent planks in a platform?
Not less than 12 inches
63) What is a guard rail system?
A barrier consisting of top rail and med rails, toe board and vertical up right erected to prevent men and materials falling from an elevated work area.
64) What is a toe board?
Barrier secured along the sides and ends of a platform to guard falling of materials, tools, and other objects.
65) What is the minimum height of a toe-board?
Minimum 4 inches
66) What is the height of the top-rail from the platform?
38 inches to 45 inches
67) What are the requirements in placing an access ladder on a scaffold?
Provide access when scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet above or below a point of access.
When using ladders, bottom rung must not be more than 24 inches high. Ladder to be at the correct angle (i.e. Feet out for every 4 feet in height) Ladders are to be tied at both sides not by the rungs. Make sure the ladder extends a safe distance (at least 90cm) above the landing stage. When the horizontal travel distance exceeds 15 meters provide at least two accesses. If the platform is longer, access shall be provided at every 30 meters. The ladder should be free from damage and should be color coded. All access ladders must be tagged.
68) In what circumstances fall protection system has to be used?
If the person could fall more than 1.8 meter then a fall protection system should be used.
Example- Any activity at an elevation more than 1.8 meter such as erection, dismantling or maintenance of scaffolding pipes, equipments.
69) What is the minimum width required for a walk-way?
Minimum width of a walk-way is 18 inches.
70) What material’s can be placed on a scaffold platform?
All types of construction materials which are used for particular construction activity can be kept on scaffolding platform but before keeping the materials and tools required for the work on the platform, we must ensure load bearing capacity of that scaffolding platform. The platform shall not be overloaded and shall be fitted with object protection system like toe board nets etc.
71) What are the requirements for working on a moving scaffold?
Mobile scaffolding shall be plumb, level and square. It shall be moved only by manually pushing or pulling the base. No men, equipment, or materials shall be on the working platform or elsewhere on the scaffolding while it is in motion. Castors shall be locked at all times except during scaffold movement. The temporary foundation or truck set on uneven ground for scaffold movement shall be level and properly secured. The height of the working platform shall not exceed 4 times of the minimum base dimension, if it exceeds this limit outriggers must be installed. A complete guard rail system must be provided. The scaffolding shall be inspected and tagged before use by a competent person.
72) When should we inspect scaffold?
Scaffolding shall be inspected and tagged after completing erection. Also before each work period or where they are altered, adjusted to rain or heavy winds. Thereafter the scaffolding shall be examined at least once in every seven days.
73) What is the angle to fixed the Ladder?
The angle of Ladder is 75deg or ¼.
74) What is the space between the two ladder Rungs?
The gape or space is 12inch or 30cm.
75) With what color a ladder can be painted?
Aluminum ladders and wooden ladders shall not be painted.
76) What is a life-line?
Life line is component that consists of a flexible line that connects to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically or that connects to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally and which serves
as a method to connect component of a personnel fall arrest system to the anchorage.
77) How can we calculate the safe anchorage of a life-line?
When life is used they shall be fastened to fixed safe points of anchorage capable of supporting 2300 kilos shall be independent, and shall be protected from sharp edges and abrasion. Safe anchorage points may include structural members (minimum 4 inches structural member or 4inces pipes) but do not include guard rails, vents, other small dia piping system, electrical conduit, outrigger beams or counter weights. It shall be made from 10mm dia wire ropes. Horizontal lifelines shall be installed at the highest feasible point, preferable above shoulder height. This life lines shall be maintained with unloaded sag at the centre no longer than 30cm (12inches) for every 10meters of life line length between attachment points.
78) What is lock-out/tag-out system?
For servicing or maintenance of live equipments or pipe lines where the unexpected energizing or release of energy could cause of injury, lock and tag are place on the isolating device to avoid uncontrolled operation and give details of the lock-out schedule.
79) Abbreviation use for safety?
STARRT - Safety Task and Risk Reduction Talk
COSHH - Control of Substance Hazardous to Health
OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration
CFR - Court of Federal Regulation
OHSAS - Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series
ELCB - Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker
GFCI - Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter
BSI - British Standard Institute
SWL - Safe Working Load
ANSI - American National Standard Institute
LTI - Lost Time Incident
LMI - Load Movement Indicater
MSDS - Material Safety Data Sheet
TWA - Time Wated Average
STEL - Short Term Exposure Limit
ERP - Emergency Response Plan
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Material
JSA - Job Safety Analysis
LEL - Lower Explosive Limit
UEL - Upper Explosive Limit
PEL - Permissible Explosive Limit
REL - Recommended Exposure Limit
PSI - Pound per Square Inches (1 bar = 14.7 psi)
STEL - Short Term Exposure Limit
WBGT - Wet Bulb Globe Temperature
APR - Air Purifying Respirator
ASR - Air Supplying Respirator
SCBA - Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
RSO - Radiation Safety Officer
NFPA - National Fire Protection
80) What is the importance of a tool-box meeting?
The workers can be educated about safe work rules and procedures, and their awareness can be improved on some task.
81) What is an Emergency Evacuation Plan?
It is the procedure to provide concise guidelines for evacuation in case of some emergencies and to identify the emergencies in advance. This also helps us to plan and to define roles and responsibilities of all building custodian, fire wardens and occupants.
82) What is a hydro-test?
It is the test carried out for leak test for pipes, equipments etc, by filling water in these equipments and pipes with some pressure and its joints and connections are checked for ant leak or breakage.
83) What is a hypo-test?
It is the insulation leakage test done for high electrical cables, with high voltage merger.
84) What are the safety requirements for doing a hot work?
Remove all combustible materials from the area (with in 10m), if possible.
Use fire blanket to protect immovable combustible materials and also for welding slugs.
Cover the area with fire blanket for containment of sparks generated while doing hot work.
Provide proper fire extinguisher in sufficient numbers.
Appoint a fire-watch with red jacket, if necessary.
Barricade the area and post proper signage.
Use of proper PPE and damage free
Conduct gas test if presence of combustible gases expected prior to work.
85) What are the benefits of near-miss reporting?
To make analysis of the incident, in order to avoid re-occurrence.
To rectify the cause of those near misses before it turns into accidents.
To identify the deficiencies of site safety performances and find remedial actions.
To improve safety performances by reducing LTA’s incidents and near misses.
86) What is a risk assessment?
Risk assessment is a method of estimating the rate of risk of an activity, by classifying actual and potential consequence and finding out mitigation actions to limit that risk.
87) In what situation “ear protection is needed”?
In the areas, where sound pollution is more than 85 dBA
88) What is the emergency evacuation procedure to follow in the event of a gas release?
Don’t get panic on hearing alarm
Observe the direction of wind flow, proceed out in the cross wind direction to the plant boundary fence and then proceed up wind.
Obey further instructions from emergency response team.
Resume work after getting clearance only.
89) What is an “Assembly Muster Point “?
The area determined and marked, for assemble of people working the area in case of any emergency.
90) What is meant by “Head counting”? What is the purpose?
On hearing emergency alarm, all people have to assemble in “Assembly Muster Point”.
There area supervisor will call his workers with attendance sheet and confirm that nobody is trapped in the site. This procedure is called head counting. Its purpose is to ensure all workers are present in the assembly area, they are safely evacuated and identify the person if anybody is trapped and take necessary actions to rescue these trapped workers.
91) What is heat stroke? What are the different stage through which a person undergoes before he gets heat stroke?
During hot days, due to dehydration, body temperature increases beyond safe limit, because of break down of body’s heat regulating mechanism. Due to this the person collapses and if not taken care off he can even die. This is called heat stroke.
Generally pulse raises 20 beats per minute for each 1 degree C rise in temperature, heat cramps: Exercising in hot weather can lead to muscle cramps, because of brief imbalances in body salt.
Heat exhaustion: further losing of fluid and salt can lead to dizziness and weakness body temperature may rise up to 102 degree F.
Heat stroke: In some cases, extreme heat can upset body’s thermostat, causing body temperature to rise to 105 degree F. or higher. Symptoms are lethargy, confusion and unconsciousness, heat stroke can kill.
92) How is the soil classified? What is the slope to be given for each type of soil while excavating?
The following is a short explanation of soil classifications. You should check the standard for detailed information regarding classifying soils
.Type A soils
v Cohesive soils that have an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 tsf or greater.
v E.g., clay, salty clay, sandy clay & clay loam
Type A soils cannot have or be subjected to the following:
v Fissures
v Subjection to vibration from traffic, pile driving or similar conditions
v Been previously disturbed
v Or if it has been subjected to other factors that would change it’s classification
Type B soils
v Cohesive soils that have an unconfined compressive strength greater than 0.5 tsf but less than 1.5tsf
v E.g., angular gravel, silt, silt loam, sandy loam and previously disrobed soils except those which would be classified as Type C soil
v Also includes soils that meet some of the requirements of Type A soils but is fissured or subject to vibration; or dry rock that is not stable.
Type C soils
v Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 0.5tsf or less
v E.g. granular soils including gravel, sand and loamy sand
v Also submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping or submerged rock that is not stable
Stable rock
v A natural solid mineral material that can be excavated with vertical sides and will remain intact while exposed.
Maximum allowable slopes
v Stable rock: vertical (90degrees)
v Type A: ¾ :1 (53degrees)
v Type B 1:1 (45degreed)
v Type C : 1 ½ : 1 (34degrees)
v ½ : 1 (63 degrees ) slope is allowed for only short term excavations that are 12feet deep or le
93) What are the precautions to be taken while handling and storing compressed cylinders?
1) Where cylinders are to be kept for an appreciable length of time should be provided to ensure that they cause no hazard to workers or public in the area.
2) Cylinders should be stored in a well ventilated area-preferable in open air but protected from the weather.
3) The store should be away from fire risks and source of heat and ignition. Nothing else should be stored in the area.
4) The cylinders should be stored upright on a firm level, well drained surface free from hollows and cavities. All long grass, weeds etc. should be removed.
5) Cylinders should be secured so as they are prevented from falling over, when in storage or use.
6) Cylinders should be segregated within the store according to type and weather full or empty.
7) Oxygen and oxidizing gases should be separated flammable gases by 6m or by a fire resistant partition.
8) No electrical apparatus should be installed within a cylinder store unless it is constructed to a suitable standard for the hazard.
9) No cylinder should be used in a storage area.
10) Appropriate warning signs “HIGHLY FLAMMABLE”. NO SMOKING”, “FULL/EMPTY” etc. should be displayed.
11) Suitable fire fighting apparatus should be situated adjacent to the store. Typically dry powder fire extinguishers. These should be inspected and maintained at intervals not exceeding 1 year.
12) Where cylinders area required to be stored in a compound this should be located not less than 3 meters from any building, site or public access road. The compound fence should be a minimum of 2 meters high, and it should have two means of escape, with the gates opening outwards.
13) Where it is necessary to take precautions vandalism or theft, suitable protection cages should be used.
14) Each cylinder should be adequate marked to include the manufacturer’s mark and serial number, together with an indication of the specification to which the cylinder is constructed and its years of manufacture. A date of test and pressure test, together with weight of cylinder and the name of the product, should be displayed.
15)When gas cylinders are to be transported they should be protected from physical damage and the consequences of any leaks that may occur minimized
16)Move cylinders by hand in proper cylinder trolleys where the cylinder is secured in the trolley.
17)Take great care when lifting cylinders as they can be very heavy and awkward to handle.
18)Before moving any cylinders remove all attached equipment including regulators and safety cap
must be provided.
 19)The cylinders should be properly supported and secures within the vehicle so they cannot move
during the journey. They should be totally within the vehicle and protected from impact.
20)The cylinders should be checked to ensure that the valves are closed and there are no leaks.
21)The vehicle should be equipped with a suitable fire extinguisher. Typically dry powder, minimum capacity 2kg.
22)There should be no smoking within the vehicle while crying cylinders.
23)The driver of the vehicle should be conversant with the load and have written information on the hazards and the action to be taken should any problems occur. The driver should also have training in the operation of the fire extinguisher and any other safety equipment carried.
94) What are the type of fire extinguishers commonly used and briefly, explain each one?
Multipurpose dry chemical, carbon dioxide, halon, wet chemical or foam, pressurized water are the commonly used fire extinguishers.
Multipurpose dry chemical / class “A”, “B”, or “C” fires.2.5-20lb. dry chemical (ammonium phosphate) pressurized to 10.5-18 bar by CO2 gas (8-25 seconds discharge time). Has pressure gauge to allow visual capacity check.5-20ft maximum effective range. Extinguisher by smothering burning materials
Smothering – Cut off oxygen / close the ventilation using fire extinguisher
Starving – Remove the fuel / remove the material going to burn
Cooling – Reduce the heat / use water
Carbon Dioxide – Class “B” or “C” fires 2.5-100lb. of CO2 gas at 150-200 psi (8-30seconds discharge time).
Has NO pressure gauge-capacity verified by weight 3-8 ft. maximum effective range.
Extinguisher by smothering burning materials, Effectiveness decreases as temperature of burning material increases.
Halon – Class “A”,”B”, or “C” fires (smaller sizes ineffective against class “A”). 9-17 lb. Halon 1211 (pressurized liquid) releases as vapor (8-18 seconds discharge time). Has pressure gauge to allow visual capacity check 9-16 ft. maximum effective range. Works best in confined area – ideal for electronics fire due to lack of residue. Extinguishers by smothering burning materials, Fumes toxic if inhaled, Halon is ozone depleting chemical – production halted in Jan ’94.
Wet Chemical or Foam – Class “A”, “B” fires 1.5gal of stored pressure PRX wet chemical extinguishing agent (40 sec. discharge time) 10-12 ft. maximum effective range. On Class “K” fires, don’t use until after fixed extinguishing system has activated, Extinguishes by cooling and forming foam blanket to prevent reigniting.
What is S
95) What is the formula for incident rate? Number of Record able injuries X 200,000
Number of employees Hour Worked
200,000 is the equivalent of 100 full time employees working for 40 hours per week or 50 weeks per year (OSHA guidelines)
96) What is First Aid and CPR?
Medical aid provide to a victim of an accident scene. This first aid is administered by trained nurse. CPR (Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation) a first aid given to a person having heart blocked or chocked due to sudden shock.
FIRE
97) What is Fire?
Chain reaction of FUEL, HEAT, OXYGEN.
A) Fuel any material which can burn like Paper, Rubber, Wood, Oil, Lubricants, Gases, Metals like Phosphorous, Magnesium.
B) Heat or temperature at which the any fuel can ignite this depends on its flash point.
C) Oxygen which is helping in combustion and is present in the air.
98) How Fire can be extinguished?
Remove anyone of the above three elements of Fire. Fire will extinguished,
A) Remove the burning material, the remaining materials will be safe.
B) Cut off the Oxygen by blanketing with foam or Fire blanket or any other materials which
can not burn the oxygen will be cut off and fire extinguished.
C) Remove or lessen the heat with water or use Carbon Dioxide fire cylinder. Never use Water for Electric Fire as water is good conductor of electricity and you will get electric shock if water is used for electric fire.
99) What common type of the fire extinguisher is used for fire?
ABC or Dry Chemical Powder Fire Extinguisher used for Solid, Liquid Gases and Electric Fire.
WORK PERMIT
100) What is a Work Permit?
A written document authorizing employees to carryout a work in a designated area on an equipment specifying the hazards, safety instructions and PPE required for work.
CONFINED SPACES
101)What is a Confined Space?
A vessel, column, tank, pit, trench which has limited entry and access and one can not stay inside for long time due to following factors.
Lack of fresh air or Oxygen, Heat, Fumes, Toxicity of storage Contents, Noise any other annoyance, causing disturbance in normal work.
102)What is (a) THLV (b) LEL (c) UEL?
Threshold Limit Value, Lower Explosive Limit, Upper Explosive Limit
103)What is ASPHYXIANTS?
Chemical gases which can cause suffocation by restricting the uptake of oxygen or by respiratory paralysis or by diluting / displacing oxygen below the levels needed by human body.
104) What is a SCBA?
Self Contained Breathing Apparatus, use in confined spaces or where oxygen deficiency exists or where concentration of toxics gases is harmful to humans.
105) What is toxic Material?
A material or substance which adversely effects body or organs.
106) What are Flammable and Combustible Liquids?
Liquids that give off enough vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air and produce a flame when a source of ignition is present.
107) What is MSDS?
Material Safety Data Sheet
108) What is a Risk Assessment/Hazard Identification Plan?
Identifying hazards and risk involve in a specific job and control measures required to eliminate them or bring them to minimum acceptable limit for the job to be done in safe manner
SCAFFOLD
Before erecting scaffolds assess the work area for existing and for potential future hazards which may impact on the work.
109) What are basic components of scaffolds?
a) Base Plate
b) Sill Boards
c) Screw Jack
d) Couplers
e) Vertical tubes or Bearer also called LEDGERS
f) Horizontal tubes or Ledgers also called STANDARDS
g) Transoms connected across the width
h) Hand rails mid rails
i) Toe Boards
j) Platforms
k) Ladder
l) Diagonal Bracings for stability
RIGGING
110) What are different types of slings used for lifting?
a) Wire rope slings
b) Synthetic/Nylon Webbings
c) Chain Slings
111) When a sling is considered unsafe for use?
1) 10 wire broken in one rope lay randomly distributed
2) 05 wires broken in one strand in one lay
3) 1/3rd of original diameter is scrapping or worn
4) Kink crushing, bird caging, or other damage or distortion of wire rope structure
5) Evidence of heat damage
6) End attachments that are cracked worn or damaged
7) Hooks open more than 15% of normal throat
8) Twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane
112) What safety measure are required for SAFE CRANE OPERATION
1) Crane is to be positioned on level ground
2) Outriggers fully extended
3) Mats to be used for stability
4) Crane radius of swing should be barricaded and no one to cross under the suspended load
5) Ensure clear of obstructions
6) Load chart available in the cabin
7) Qualified Operator and rigger to rig the loads
8) Only one rigger is authorized to signal the operator
9) Do not lift the load beyond the rated capacity of the crane
10) Wind speed not more than 20miles/hr or 32km/hr
11) Anti two block system working
12) Load monitoring indicator operational
13) Telescopic boom free moment
14) Operators cabin have clear view and not obstructed
PORTABLE ELECTRICAL TOOLS
114) Why this should be used with electric tools?
To protect the workers from shock in case of current leakage
115) What is the sign of a potable electric tool having double insulated?
(Double square)
116) Why tools having broken insulation must not be used?
To avoid possible electric shock
117) What is meager test?
The insulation break down test is known as meager test
118) Why meager test is necessary for electric tools?
A tool having subjected to harsh use at site needs to be tested for insulation break down to avoid possible electric shock.
119) Why dead man switch should be used on electric tools?
To cut off the power supply to the tool in emergency
120) Why Safety Training is required?
To make the employees familiar with the hazards associated with their work safety orientation and some other trainings is required, also special craft training is required before start of work, safety assessment risk assessment for potential hazards is essential which covers the general hazards and specific hazards associated to the work being undertaken and the control measures applied to eliminate or minimize the potential of harm to the employees, therefore emphasis of accidental loss of resources (Men and Materials) to reduce the direct and indirect costs and loss time delays due to interruptions providing safe and friendly environment for timely completion of projects therefore imparting plays an important role in loss control and it is an idea sound business to have safety culture prevailing on the construction sites.
121) What is LOTO?
Lock out tag out, to lock out specific breakers are used for the maintenance of all equipments
122) What is GFCI?
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter
123) What is Excavation and Ditches?
Digging of land with Machine or with men
124) What is Confined Space?
Space heaving a limited entrance or egress but that is large enough to bodily entrance and performed the work, i.e.
1) Pits sumps
2) Vessels
3) Boilers
4) Tanks Sewers
5) D-Excavations
Hazards
 A) High Temperature
B) High Noise
C) Fall from Elevation
D) Sleeping
E) Oxygen deficiency
125) What are the scaffoldings and its kinds and it’s Consists?
It is temporary platform
Kinds
A) System Scaffolding
B) Under Hang Scaffoldings
C) Mobile Scaffolding
D) Bract Scaffolding
E) Tower Scaffolding
F) Tube and Copular scaffolding
Scaffolding Consists
A) Sole Boards
B) Base Plates
C) Posts
D) Ledgers
E) Couplers
1. Right angle couplers
2. Right angle Double couplers
3. End to End Couplers
4. Adjustable Couplers
5. Girder Couplers
F) Top rail
G) Mid rail
1. Should be in between top rail and toe boards
H) Toe Board
1. Distance between toe board to top rail should be 38 to 43 inches
I) Bracings
1. Zigzag bracings
2. Transverse bracings
3. Longitudinal bracings and cross bracings
126) What is KENAPI?
To Safe Workers from falling objects we can use KENAPI nets and catch plate forms.
127) Which Permit is use for Vehicles?
Hot Work Permit
128) What is Risk Assessment?
Simply we can defined it with
v What can go wrong
v What can cause its going wrong
v What can we do to prevent it from going wrong
129) What is Evocation?
v Stop the work and switch off equipment and proceed to nearest assembly ground
v Always walk against wind direction
v If you driving a vehicle, stop on road side switch off engine and proceed to assembly area and let the key should inside the ignition point.
v Head count will taken by Safety Officer in assembly area.
v Do not come to work tell all clear alarm sounds.
130) How many types of accident in construction area?
Fatality case
Last work day case
Restricted work case
Medical treatment case
First aid case
Near miss Incident
v An incident, which could cause property damage or personal injury and if we will not stop near miss incidents then can happen an accident.
131) What is Toolbox Talks?
Awareness about work situation to the employee is called toolbox talk
A development of safety bricfings and deal with special issues at the workplace.
132) What is DBA?
The frequency of noise at which we should use ear plug or muffs is 85DBA.
v DBA Decibel at scale A
133) What are LEL and UEL?
v Lower Explosive Limit
v Upper Explosive Limit
Level of Flammable gases or toxic gasses should be zero
Level of Oxygen should be in between 19.5 – 23.5 in volume
134) How many scaffolding tags used in scaffolding?
v Green tag - Scaffolding is safe to work
v Yellow - Use full body harness is required with double Lyn yard
v Red tag - Means scaffolding is unsafe or not able to use (only scaffolder can work)
Note: Safety Harness can bear the weight 2450kg
135) What are the precautions for Welding?
v Hot work permit is required
v Area should be barricaded and warning signage should be placed
v Area should be clean at least 8 meters (free from combustible materials)
v Fire extinguisher and fire blankets should be available
v Trained fire watch man should be available
v Fire water drum should be available
Note: Welder must use complete PPE’s (Welding Helmet, Gloves and Long sleeves shirt)
SAFETY DEFINATIONS
136) Safety
Safety is a state where risk has been eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level
137) Fire
Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation or burning of a fuel. It needs three elements to occur
138) Fuel
Fuel can be any combustible material – solid, liquid, or gas. Most solids and liquids become a
139) Oxygen
Oxygen the air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen. Fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16 percent oxygen.
140)Heat
Heat is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur.
142)Flash Point
Flash Point is the lowest temperature at which a fuel produces enough vapors to ignite in the presence of a heat source.
143) Dust
Dust consists of solid particles and is created by such operations as grinding or sieving of solid materials, controlled detonations and various drying processes.
144) Fumes
Fumes are finely particulate solids which are created by condensation from a vapor, very often after a metal has been converted to the molten state. Fumes are usually highly toxic.
145) Gases
Gas is the formless chemical which occupies the area in which it is enclosed. There are many toxic gases used in industry, such as chlorine.
146) Mist
Mist consists of finely suspended droplets formed by condensation from a gas or the atomizing of a liquid or from aerosols.
147) Vapors
Vapors are the gaseous form of a solid or a liquid, rise in temperature causes the vaporization. Examples are organic solvent vapors’.
148) Liquid
Liquid is a typical example of a liquid, Can be in other forms as droplets or aerosols.
149) Very Toxic
Substances and preparations which in very low quantities cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled swallowed or absorbed via the skin.
150) Toxic
Toxic substances and preparation that in low quantities cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled swallowed or absorbed via the skin.
151) Corrosive
Corrosive is substances and preparations that may on contact destroy living tissues.
152) Density
The density of a material is defined as the mass of one cubic meter of material
DENSITY = MASS/VOLUME
153) Specific Gravity
We can therefore say that any liquid that will not dissolve (not miscible) in water, with a specific gravity higher than 1, will sink, whilst those with a specific gravity lower than 1 will float on top. For example:
1m3 of water (1000 liters) weights 1000kg
1m3 of aviation gasoline (1000 liters) weight 720 kgs
154) Heat
Heat is a form of energy. Heat can be produced by chemical means, e.g., by burning aviation fuel or by mechanical means, by fiction. Passing electric current through a resistor also produces heat as in an electric fire.
155) Element
Substances that consist of only one type of atom are known as elements. EX. CARBON
156) Molecules
If an element consists of more than one of the same type of atom, chemically bound together, it is known as a molecule. EX. OXYGEN, The term molecule can also be used to describe a substance that is made up of more than one type of atom, water is example.
157) Compound
A mixture is a term used to describe a substance that is made up of more than one type of molecule. EX. WATER
158) Combustion
Combustion is a chemical process. For it to occur, oxygen, usually from the air, must combine with a fuel. A fuel is any substance that will burn and may be in any one of the three states, solid, liquid or gas. EX. SMOLDING OR FLAMING
Flammability Limits:
Flammability Limit
(% Fuel/Air by volume)
GAS
LOWER LIMIT
UPPER LIMIT
Hydrogen
4
75
Carbon Monoxide
12.5
74.2
Methane
5
15
Butane
1.5
9
Ethylene
2.7
28.6
Acetylene
5.5
80
159) Organization Culture
Shop floor representatives, supervisors and managers who meet to discuss general health and safety matters affecting the company
160)Attitude
A person’s point of view, or their way of looking at something.
161) Mistakes or Errors
Doing the wrong thing, believing it to be right
162)Influence of peer group
A peer group is a group of individuals of a similar age or background with whom a person mixes in a social context.
163)Work place group
The workplace group is such a group and we behave in accordance with the collective, accepted behavior of the group.
164)Communication
Communication is defined as, imparting, conveying or exchanging information, ideas or opinion by the use of speech, written, or graphics.
165)Written communication
Written a postal service or a notice board
166) Oral or Verbal (SPOKEN) Communication
Oral or Verbal (spoken) a personal interview or telephone system
167) Notices, Posters, Films
Used to draw attention to hazards and risks or safe practices and measures, need to be ‘eye catching’ and relevant.
168) Tool Box Talks
A development of safety briefings and deal with specific issues at the workplace
169) Employee Hand Book:
Key document laying out company policy and certain procedures, Effective as part of induction training
170) Investigation
The purpose of an investigation is primarily to find the cause, with the intention of preventing a recurrence, rather than to blame
171) Reactive Monitoring
Reactive Monitoring, which is used in the investigation of accidents, incidents or dangerous occurrences-After
172) Proactive Monitoring
Pro-active monitoring, which involves checking that standards, practices, procedures and system are being complied with. Before
173) Maintenance Inspections
Inspections involve examining, testing and making repairs/adjustments to such items, often specified by the manufacturer or supplier.
174) Safety Inspection
A formal inspection by a team of inspectors who go round an area or section of work to check on standards; e.g floor condition, HK, warning signs, fire equipment
175) Safety Survey
An in-depth examination of specific procedures such as the introduction of new equipment, or investigating a rise in accident or incident rate
176) Chemical Hazard
Liquids, dusts, fumes, mists
177) Biological Hazards
Exposure to bacteria, viruses and fungi
178) Physical Hazard
Mechanical, noise, radiation, heat etc. also includes ergonomic factors
179) Psychological Hazards
Refers to mental stress
180) Safe Work System
A safe system of work is: a formal procedure which results from systematic examination of a task in order to identify all the hazards
181) Permit to Work
A permit to work can be described as: A formal document giving written.